Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of the whole cohort and DLB clusters

From: Parsing heterogeneity within dementia with Lewy bodies using clustering of biological, clinical, and demographic data

  Whole cohort Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Between-cluster ANOVA
(N = 107) (n = 39) (n = 25) (n = 24) (n = 19) (p-value)
Age 68 (± 8.7) 70 (± 7.2)b,d 64 (± 7.7)a,c 71 (± 10)a,d 64 (± 6.9)a,c 0.001
Sex, n men (%) 77 (72.0%) 28 (71.8%) 21 (84.0%)d 21 (87.5%)d 7 (36.8%)b,c 0.001
Education, years mean (SD) 11 (± 3.8) 11 (± 2.8)b,d 8.2 (± 2.4)a,c,d 12 (± 3.5)a,d 15 (± 3.3)a,b,c <0.001
Disease duration, years mean (SD) 4.3 (± 3.8) 4.2 (± 4.9)d 3.7 (± 2.7)d 3.5 (± 2.3)d 6.3 (± 3.8)a,b,c 0.013
MMSE score, mean (SD) 25 (± 4.0) 24 (± 3.9)d 22 (± 3.9)d 25 (± 3.8)d 28 (± 2.0)a,b,c <0.001
Core clinical features
 Parkinsonism, n present (%) 87 (81 %) 33 (85 %)c 25 (100%)c 11 (46 %)a,b,d 18 (95 %)c <0.001
 Visual hallucinations, n present (%) 68 (64 %) 29 (74 %)b 8 (32 %)a 17 (71 %) 14 (74 %) 0.003
 Cognitive fluctuations, n present (%) 90 (84 %) 39 (100 %)b 12 (48 %)a,d 20 (83 %) 19 (100 %)b <0.001
 Probable RBD, n present (%) 68 (64 %) 23 (59 %) 20 (80 %) 15 (62 %) 10 (53 %) 0.234
CSF biomarkers
 Aβ42, n abnormal (%) 31 (29 %) 16 (41 %) 6 (24 %) 8 (33 %) 1 (5 %) 0.037*
 Total tau, n abnormal (%) 23 (21 %) 4 (10 %)c 0 (0 %)c 19 (79 %)a,b,d 0 (0 %)c <0.001
 p-tau, n abnormal (%) 38 (36 %) 11 (28 %)c 4 (16 %)c 23 (96 %)a,b,d 0 (0 %)c <0.001
 AD CSF profile, n abnormal (%)       <0.001
  AD pathology 12 (11 %) 3 (8 %) 1 (4 %) 8 (33 %) 0 (0 %)  
  AD pathological change 19 (18 %) 13 (33 %) 5 (20%) 0 (0 %) 1 (5%)  
  Amyloid independent tau-pathology 26 (24 %) 8 (21 %) 3 (12 %) 15 (63 %) 0 (0 %)  
  Normal 50 (47 %) 15 (38 %) 16 (64 %) 1 (4 %) 18 (95 %)  
Visual rating scales
 MTA, n abnormal (%) 35 (33 %) 23 (59 %)b,c 5 (20 %)a 3 (12 %)a 4 (21 %) <0.001
 GCA-F, n abnormal (%) 42 (39 %) 20 (51 %)d 11 (44 %)d 11 (46 %)d 0 (0 %)a,b,c 0.002
 PA, n abnormal (%) 61 (57 %) 19 (49 %) 19 (76 %)d 19 (79 %)d 4 (21 %)b,c <0.001
 Fazekas, n high WMH burden (%) 29/92 (32%)§ 15/32 (47%)d 6/24 (25%) 7/18 (39%) 1/17 (6%)a 0.018
  1. No missing data was recorded for the rest of the variables. ap < 0.05 compared to cluster 1. bp<0.05 compared to cluster 2. cp<0.05 compared to cluster 3. dp<0.05 compared to cluster 4. §Available data for Fazekas is n = 92. *Does not survive Hochberg’s correction in post hoc pair-wise comparisons. Abbreviations: ANOVA analysis of variance, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, Aβ42 amyloid-beta 1-42, p-tau phosphorylated tau, AD Alzheimer’s disease, MTA medial temporal lobe atrophy, GCA-F global cortical atrophy-frontal subscale, PA posterior brain atrophy, na not applicable