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Table 1 Baseline participant characteristics by LTRA use in normal, MCI, and AD groups following propensity score matching

From: Leukotriene receptor antagonist use and cognitive decline in normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer’s dementia

  Normal MCI AD
User (n = 350) Non-user (n = 1050) SMD p value User (n = 200) Non-user (n = 600) SMD p value User (n = 151) Non-user (n = 453) SMD p value
Baseline demographics
 Age (years) 70.30 (9.71) 70.37 (9.56) 0.007 0.904 73.75 (8.86) 73.94 (8.76) 0.021 0.795 75.35 (9.73) 75.24 (10.13) 0.011 0.907
 Female 261 (74.6%) 793 (75.5%) 0.022 0.775 110 (55.0%) 321 (53.5%) 0.030 0.774 93 (61.6%) 265 (58.5%) 0.063 0.566
 BMI (kg/m2) 29.41 (6.21) 29.70 (6.78) 0.045 0.475 27.82 (5.54) 27.92 (6.17) 0.018 0.831 27.03 (6.05) 26.93 (5.08) 0.018 0.842
 Education (years) 15.77 (3.29) 15.81 (2.82) 0.013 0.822 15.23 (3.32) 15.15 (3.27) 0.024 0.770 13.87 (4.51) 14.03 (3.77) 0.038 0.670
 Smoking history (total years smoked > 0) 158 (45.1%) 471 (44.9%) 0.006 0.975 86 (43.0%) 273 (45.5%) 0.050 0.594 60 (39.7%) 199 (43.9%) 0.085 0.420
Dementia measures
 CDR global score    0.019 0.838    0.065 0.697    0.119 0.659
  0 316 (90.3%) 942 (89.7%)    25 (12.5%) 72 (12.0%)    0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%)   
  0.5 34 (9.7%) 108 (10.3%)    172 (86.0%) 523 (87.2%)    58 (38.4%) 200 (44.2%)   
  1 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%)    3 (1.5%) 5 (0.8%)    61 (40.4%) 168 (37.1%)   
  2 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%)    0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%)    28 (18.5%) 73 (16.1%)   
  3 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%)    0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%)    4 (2.6%) 12 (2.6%)   
APOE ε4 carrier 116 (33.1%) 347 (33.0%) 0.002 1.000 84 (42.0%) 247 (41.2%) 0.017 0.901 81 (53.6%) 252 (55.6%) 0.040 0.741
 Vascular dementia 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) < 0.001 - 7 (3.5%) 29 (4.8%) 0.067 0.555 6 (4.0%) 14 (3.1%) 0.048 0.793
 AD medication use 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) < 0.001 - 52 (26.0%) 155 (25.8%) 0.004 > 0.999 100 (66.2%) 302 (66.7%) 0.009 > 0.999
Other respiratory medication use
 Allergy medications 152 (43.4%) 477 (45.4%) 0.040 0.556 82 (41.0%) 240 (40.0%) 0.020 0.868 51 (33.8%) 163 (36.0%) 0.046 0.694
 COPD medications 27 (7.7%) 58 (5.5%) 0.088 0.175 27 (13.5%) 65 (10.8%) 0.082 0.370 17 (11.3%) 48 (10.6%) 0.021 0.940
 Rescue inhaler for asthma 82 (23.4%) 178 (17.0%) 0.162 0.009 40 (20.0%) 129 (21.5%) 0.037 0.726 36 (23.8%) 92 (20.3%) 0.085 0.421
 Maintenance inhaler for asthma 136 (38.9%) 350 (33.3%) 0.115 0.070 78 (39.0%) 211 (35.2%) 0.079 0.372 49 (32.5%) 140 (30.9%) 0.033 0.800
  1. Continuous variables expressed as mean (standardized deviation); categorical variables expressed as counts (proportion)
  2. Abbreviations: AD Alzheimer’s disease, BMI body mass index, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, MCI mild cognitive impairment, and SMD standardized mean difference