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Table 4 Association of combined medications with the development of dementia with possible AD after TBI occurrence

From: Beneficial association of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and statins on the occurrence of possible Alzheimer’s disease after traumatic brain injury

A. Reference group = no medication
 p valuesHazard ratio95% confidence interval
Age< .00011.111.091.13
Sex0.420.720.331.58
African American0.400.780.441.38
Hispanic0.011.931.193.12
Other0.681.240.453.38
ACEI + beta0.140.630.341.17
ACEI + statin0.010.440.230.85
ACEI + metformin0.040.210.050.90
Beta blocker + statin0.110.630.351.11
Beta blocker + metformin0.230.470.141.60
Statin + metformin0.451.320.652.70
Medication duration0.071.001.001.00
Sleep0.550.830.461.52
Thyroid0.230.620.281.37
Cardiac dysrhythmia< .00012.181.313.63
Cancer0.550.840.491.47
Congestive heart failure0.380.620.221.78
Coronary artery disease0.340.760.431.34
Diabetes0.620.870.511.50
Hyperlipidemia0.161.310.901.90
Hypertension0.091.400.952.06
Kidney0.150.240.031.70
Liver0.450.560.132.47
Lung0.861.040.691.57
Peripheral artery disease0.611.180.622.24
Stroke0.970.990.551.77
Alcohol0.381.240.772.01
Anxiety0.321.250.811.94
Bipolar0.591.200.632.28
PTSD0.110.630.361.11
Schizophrenia0.501.270.632.55
Depression0.781.060.721.57
Drug substance0.070.480.211.08
Number of TBI occurrence< .00011.041.021.07
B. Reference group = no medication or statin + metformin
 No med as the referenceStatin + metformin as the reference
Medicationp valueHR95% CIp valueHR95% CI
ACEI + beta blocker0.140.630.341.170.160.540.231.27
ACEI + statin0.010.440.230.850.020.350.150.82
ACEI + metformin0.040.210.050.900.030.180.040.87
Beta blocker + statin0.110.630.351.110.090.490.221.11
Beta blocker + metformin0.230.470.141.600.240.450.121.69
Statin + metformin0.451.320.652.70    
  1. Note: Models adjusted by demographic variables and comorbidities