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Table 1 Description of the study population

From: High tau levels in cerebrospinal fluid predict nursing home placement and rapid progression in Alzheimer’s disease

Variable Data
n 234
Follow-up period, years, median (range) 4.9 (2–11)
Age, years, median (range) 70 (46–86)
MMSE score, mean ± SD 24 ± 5
Female sex 145 (62)
Coresidency status  
 Cohabiting (female/male) 99 (68)/79 (89)
 Living alone (female/male) 46 (32)/10 (11)
Education (years)  
 ≤7 114 (49)
 8–12 71 (30)
 ≥13 49 (21)
CSF biomarkersa according to baseline AD stage, mean ± SD
 t-tau, ng/L MCI 723 ± 354, dementia 780 ± 558
 p-tau, ng/L MCI 102 ± 43, dementia 102 ± 48
 Aβ42, ng/L MCI 351 ± 114, dementia 374 ± 124
 All three biomarkers normala 5 (2)
 Low Aβ42, normal t-tau and p-tau 21 (9)
 Low Aβ42, high t-tau or p-tau 48 (21)
 Normal Aβ42, high t-tau and/or p-tau 29 (12)
 All three biomarkers pathological 131 (56)
Baseline AD stage, n (%); MMSE score, mean (SD)  
 MCI 134 (57); 26 ± 3
 Mild dementia 85 (36); 22 ± 4
 Moderate dementia 15 (7); 15 ± 6
NHP during follow-up 112 (48)
Males/females 34 (38)/78 (54)
MCI/dementia stage at baseline 54 (40)/58 (58)
Conversion to moderate dementia, n = 219 149 (68)
 From MCI at baseline 83/134 (62)
 From mild dementia at baseline 66/86 (77)
Rapid cognitive declineb 57 (24)
 MCI 22 (16)
 Mild to moderate dementia 35 (35)
Death during follow-up 83 (35)
 Death in severe dementia during follow-up 46 (20)
 MCI 19 (14)
 Mild to moderate dementia 27 (27)
  1. Aβ42 amyloid-β 42 peptide, AD Alzheimer’s disease, CSF cerebrospinal fluid, MCI mild cognitive impairment, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination, NHP nursing home placement, p-tau phosphorylated tau, t-tau total tau
  2. Values are number (percent) unless otherwise stated
  3. aReference values: Aβ42 >450 ng/L, t-tau <400 ng/L, p-tau <80 ng/L
  4. b≥4-point decline in MMSE per 12 months