Should the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype be a covariate for clinical trials in Alzheimer disease (AD)? ApoE is a transport protein for lipids, amyloid-beta proteins, and the different phenotypes differentially affect amyloid-beta deposition, neurofibrillary tangle formation, and microglial activation. The ApoE genotype has not affected efficacy in short symptomatic AD trials. ApoE4 has been associated with greater efficacy in at least two mild cognitive impairment studies. Vasogenic edema was more frequent in ApoE4 AD patients treated with a monoclonal antibody to amyloid beta. Since there is evidence that the ApoE genotype may differentially affect disease mechanisms, efficacy, and adverse effects in both AD and mild cognitive impairment trials, the ApoE genotype should be included as a covariate in future studies.