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Table 2 Comparison between VLOSLP patients with positive results and negative results in tests for indicative biomarkers of DLB

From: Characteristics of very late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis as prodromal dementia with Lewy bodies: a cross-sectional study

 

VLOSLP+LB (n = 11)

VLOSLP–LB (n = 23)

Effect size

p

Gender, female (%)

8 (72.7%)

20 (87.0%)

0.175

0.309

Age, years

76.8 (7.4)

80.2 (5.9)

− 0.228

0.188

Onset age, years

74.5 (7.8)

77.1 (7.0)

− 0.158

0.363

Education duration, years

12.3 (1.7)

12.3 (2.0)

− 0.030

0.885

Cognitive battery

 MMSE

26.2 (1.9)

26.9 (1.7)

− 0.182

0.308

 WMS-R LM I

10.5 (7.4)

12.4 (5.5)

− 0.237

0.178

 WMS-R LM II

5.5 (4.2)

5.9 (5.1)

− 0.016

0.925

 DSST, ssa

6.9 (3.1)

10.0 (2.7)

− 0.510d

0.005*

 BDT, ssb

7.4 (3.2)

9.9 (3.1)

− 0.358d

0.055

 Digit span, ssb

10.0 (3.7)

10.8 (3.1)

− 0.097

0.627

 Information, ssb

10.6 (2.1)

10.1 (2.6)

− 0.174

0.365

NPI-plusc

 Delusions

2.4 (2.3)

6.9 (4.3)

− 0.482d

0.005*

 Hallucinations

2.7 (2.3)

4.1 (5.0)

− 0.051

0.795

 Agitation/aggression

0.0 (0.0)

0.9 (2.7)

− 0.213

0.562

 Dysphoria/depression

0.3 (0.7)

1.1 (2.1)

− 0.159

0.483

 Anxiety

1.3 (2.7)

1.9 (3.0)

− 0.104

0.617

 Euphoria

0.0 (0.0)

0.0 (0.2)

− 0.119

0.857

 Apathy

0.8 (1.7)

3.5 (4.3)

− 0.308d

0.129

 Disinhibition

0.1 (0.3)

1.2 (3.0)

− 0.125

0.675

 Irritability

0.4 (1.0)

1.0 (2.7)

− 0.050

0.857

 Aberrant motor behavior

0.0 (0.0)

0.7 (2.7)

− 0.171

0.704

 Nighttime behavior

0.6 (1.3)

2.9 (3.0)

− 0.352d

0.064

 Appetite

0.6 (1.9)

1.5 (2.9)

− 0.153

0.562

 Cognitive fluctuation

1.4 (2.1)

1.6 (2.5)

− 0.008

0.984

Contents of delusions

 At least one delusion

9 (81.8%)

22 (95.7%)

0.228

0.183

 Delusion of persecution

4 (36.4%)

14 (60.9%)

0.230

0.180

 Delusion of theft

4 (36.4%)

11 (47.8%)

0.108

0.529

 Delusional jealousy

1 (9.1%)

3 (13.0%)

0.057

0.738

 Phantom-border delusion

6 (54.5%)

9 (39.1%)

0.145

0.397

 Misidentification of person

0 (0.0%)

1 (4.3%)

0.120

0.483

 Misidentification of place

0 (0.0%)

2 (8.7%)

0.173

0.313

 Delusion of abandonment

0 (0.0%)

1 (4.3%)

0.120

0.483

 Misidentification of TV

0 (0.0%)

3 (13.0%)

0.215

0.210

 Other delusions

1 (9.1%)

5 (21.7%)

0.155

0.365

Modalities of hallucinations

 at least one hallucination

10 (90.9%)

14 (60.9%)

0.308d

0.072

 Auditory hallucinations

5 (45.5%)

10 (43.5%)

0.019

0.914

 Monolog

3 (27.3%)

4 (17.4%)

0.114

0.505

 Visual hallucinations

9 (81.8%)

6 (26.1%)

0.525d

0.002*

 Hallucinations of smell

0 (0.0%)

1 (4.3%)

0.120

0.483

 Tactile hallucinations

0 (0.0%)

1 (4.3%)

0.120

0.483

 Hallucinations of taste

0 (0.0%)

0 (0.0%)

-

-

 Other hallucinations

1 (9.1%)

2 (8.7%)

0.005

0.970

Medications

 Antipsychotics

2 (18.2%)

5 (21.7%)

0.041

0.810

 Benzodiazepine

3 (27.3%)

9 (39.1%)

0.116

0.498

 Anticholinergic drugs

1 (9.1%)

0 (0.0%)

0.252

0.142

  1. Data represent mean (SD) or number (%)
  2. Abbreviations: VLOSLP very late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis, DLB dementia with Lewy bodies, VLOSLP+LB VLOSLP with positive results as indicative biomarkers of DLB, VLOSLP–LB VLOSLP with negative results in indicative biomarkers of DLB, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, WMS-R Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, LM logical memory, DSST Digit Symbol Substitution Test, BDT block design test, ss standardized score, NPI Neuropsychiatric Inventory
  3. Results of Mann-Whitney U test for continuous and ordinal variables and chi-square test for nominal variables
  4. *p < 0.05
  5. aLack of data on a patient in VLOSLP+LB and on three patients in VLOSLP–LB
  6. bLack of data on two patients in VLOSLP+LB and on three patients in VLOSLP–LB
  7. cLack of data on a patient in VLOSLP+LB and on a patient in VLOSLP–LB
  8. dMedium-to-large effect size. We calculated r for Mann-Whitney U test and Cohen’s W for chi-square test as effect size