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Table 2 Comparison between VLOSLP patients with positive results and negative results in tests for indicative biomarkers of DLB

From: Characteristics of very late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis as prodromal dementia with Lewy bodies: a cross-sectional study

  VLOSLP+LB (n = 11) VLOSLP–LB (n = 23) Effect size p
Gender, female (%) 8 (72.7%) 20 (87.0%) 0.175 0.309
Age, years 76.8 (7.4) 80.2 (5.9) − 0.228 0.188
Onset age, years 74.5 (7.8) 77.1 (7.0) − 0.158 0.363
Education duration, years 12.3 (1.7) 12.3 (2.0) − 0.030 0.885
Cognitive battery
 MMSE 26.2 (1.9) 26.9 (1.7) − 0.182 0.308
 WMS-R LM I 10.5 (7.4) 12.4 (5.5) − 0.237 0.178
 WMS-R LM II 5.5 (4.2) 5.9 (5.1) − 0.016 0.925
 DSST, ssa 6.9 (3.1) 10.0 (2.7) − 0.510d 0.005*
 BDT, ssb 7.4 (3.2) 9.9 (3.1) − 0.358d 0.055
 Digit span, ssb 10.0 (3.7) 10.8 (3.1) − 0.097 0.627
 Information, ssb 10.6 (2.1) 10.1 (2.6) − 0.174 0.365
NPI-plusc
 Delusions 2.4 (2.3) 6.9 (4.3) − 0.482d 0.005*
 Hallucinations 2.7 (2.3) 4.1 (5.0) − 0.051 0.795
 Agitation/aggression 0.0 (0.0) 0.9 (2.7) − 0.213 0.562
 Dysphoria/depression 0.3 (0.7) 1.1 (2.1) − 0.159 0.483
 Anxiety 1.3 (2.7) 1.9 (3.0) − 0.104 0.617
 Euphoria 0.0 (0.0) 0.0 (0.2) − 0.119 0.857
 Apathy 0.8 (1.7) 3.5 (4.3) − 0.308d 0.129
 Disinhibition 0.1 (0.3) 1.2 (3.0) − 0.125 0.675
 Irritability 0.4 (1.0) 1.0 (2.7) − 0.050 0.857
 Aberrant motor behavior 0.0 (0.0) 0.7 (2.7) − 0.171 0.704
 Nighttime behavior 0.6 (1.3) 2.9 (3.0) − 0.352d 0.064
 Appetite 0.6 (1.9) 1.5 (2.9) − 0.153 0.562
 Cognitive fluctuation 1.4 (2.1) 1.6 (2.5) − 0.008 0.984
Contents of delusions
 At least one delusion 9 (81.8%) 22 (95.7%) 0.228 0.183
 Delusion of persecution 4 (36.4%) 14 (60.9%) 0.230 0.180
 Delusion of theft 4 (36.4%) 11 (47.8%) 0.108 0.529
 Delusional jealousy 1 (9.1%) 3 (13.0%) 0.057 0.738
 Phantom-border delusion 6 (54.5%) 9 (39.1%) 0.145 0.397
 Misidentification of person 0 (0.0%) 1 (4.3%) 0.120 0.483
 Misidentification of place 0 (0.0%) 2 (8.7%) 0.173 0.313
 Delusion of abandonment 0 (0.0%) 1 (4.3%) 0.120 0.483
 Misidentification of TV 0 (0.0%) 3 (13.0%) 0.215 0.210
 Other delusions 1 (9.1%) 5 (21.7%) 0.155 0.365
Modalities of hallucinations
 at least one hallucination 10 (90.9%) 14 (60.9%) 0.308d 0.072
 Auditory hallucinations 5 (45.5%) 10 (43.5%) 0.019 0.914
 Monolog 3 (27.3%) 4 (17.4%) 0.114 0.505
 Visual hallucinations 9 (81.8%) 6 (26.1%) 0.525d 0.002*
 Hallucinations of smell 0 (0.0%) 1 (4.3%) 0.120 0.483
 Tactile hallucinations 0 (0.0%) 1 (4.3%) 0.120 0.483
 Hallucinations of taste 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) - -
 Other hallucinations 1 (9.1%) 2 (8.7%) 0.005 0.970
Medications
 Antipsychotics 2 (18.2%) 5 (21.7%) 0.041 0.810
 Benzodiazepine 3 (27.3%) 9 (39.1%) 0.116 0.498
 Anticholinergic drugs 1 (9.1%) 0 (0.0%) 0.252 0.142
  1. Data represent mean (SD) or number (%)
  2. Abbreviations: VLOSLP very late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis, DLB dementia with Lewy bodies, VLOSLP+LB VLOSLP with positive results as indicative biomarkers of DLB, VLOSLP–LB VLOSLP with negative results in indicative biomarkers of DLB, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, WMS-R Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, LM logical memory, DSST Digit Symbol Substitution Test, BDT block design test, ss standardized score, NPI Neuropsychiatric Inventory
  3. Results of Mann-Whitney U test for continuous and ordinal variables and chi-square test for nominal variables
  4. *p < 0.05
  5. aLack of data on a patient in VLOSLP+LB and on three patients in VLOSLP–LB
  6. bLack of data on two patients in VLOSLP+LB and on three patients in VLOSLP–LB
  7. cLack of data on a patient in VLOSLP+LB and on a patient in VLOSLP–LB
  8. dMedium-to-large effect size. We calculated r for Mann-Whitney U test and Cohen’s W for chi-square test as effect size