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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants in each visual acuity (VA) groupa (total n = 2756)

From: Decreased visual acuity is related to thinner cortex in cognitively normal adults: cross-sectional, single-center cohort study

  Bad (n = 159) Fair (n = 1256) Good (n = 1341) pb
Overall Bad vs fair Bad vs good Fair vs good
Age (years) 67.4 ± 7.6 64.9 ± 7.0 61.4 ± 6.6 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Sex (male, %) 54 (34.0) 543 (43.2) 786 (58.6) < 0.001 0.026 < 0.001 < 0.001
Education (years) 10.2 ± 5.1 12.2 ± 4.4 13.6 ± 3.6 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Hypertension (%) 82 (51.6) 620 (49.4) 547 (40.8) < 0.001 0.600 0.009 < 0.001
Diabetes (%) 34 (21.4) 198 (15.8) 206 (15.4) 0.143 0.071 0.050 0.777
Dyslipidemia (%) 41 (25.8) 418 (33.3) 420 (31.3) 0.132 0.057 0.153 0.286
ICV (mL) × 105 13.3 ± 1.5 13.4 ± 1.2 13.8 ± 1.2 < 0.001 0.136 < 0.001 < 0.001
MMSEc 26.4 ± 0.3 27.6 ± 0.1 28.2 ± 0.1 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
VA (logMAR) 0.49 ± 0.13 0.16 ± 0.07 − 0.02 ± 0.05 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Total cortical thickness (× 10−1mm) 60.16 ± 2.42 60.81 ± 2.29 61.16 ± 2.13 < 0.001 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
  1. ICV intracranial volume, MMSE Mini-Mental state examination, logMAR -log (Snellen visual acuity)
  2. aGrouped by VA in better-seeing eye: bad = VA ≤ 20/40, fair = 20/40 < VA ≤ 20/25, and good = VA > 20/25 (VA was presented in the Snellen system). Numerical continuous parameters were described as mean ± standard deviation, and categorical parameters were described as total numbers (percentages)
  3. bResults from analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni post hoc test for continuous variables (total cortical thickness, age, education, ICV, MMSE) and Pearson’s chi-squared test for binary variable (sex, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia)
  4. cMMSE has a missing value: 11 subjects in the bad VA group, 54 subjects in the fair VA group, and 58 subjects in the good VA group