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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of study subjects according to the duration of hormone therapy

From: Hormone therapy and the decreased risk of dementia in women with depression: a population-based cohort study

  Duration of OC use (years) Duration of HRT (years)
Never (n = 175,294) < 1 (n = 19,927) ≥ 1 (n = 14,367) P Never (n = 167,530) < 2 (n = 23,832) 2–5 (n = 9845) ≥ 5 (n = 8381) P
Age (years) 62.96 ± 8.45 61.59 ± 7.37 62.70 ± 7.12 < 0.0001 63.62 ± 8.45 59.10 ± 6.87 59.35 ± 6.36 61.43 ± 60 < 0.0001
BMI (kg/m2) 24.21 ± 3.18 24.35 ± 3.08 24.61 ± 3.12 < 0.001 24.33 ± 3.22 24.00 ± 2.96 23.78 ± 2.86 23.85 ± 2.79 < 0.0001
Systolic BP (mmHg) 125.55 ± 15.98 125.06 ± 15.71 126.15 ± 15.62 < 0.0001 126.30 ± 16.04 122.65 ± 15.08 122.07 ± 15.01 122.77 ± 15.19 < 0.0001
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 76.82 ± 10.01 76.55 ± 9.99 76.82 ± 9.95 0.0019 77.14 ± 10.04 75.59 ± 9.80 75.20 ± 9.74 75.04 ± 9.68 < 0.0001
Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 100.52 ± 25.38 100.40 ± 24.65 101.41 ± 25.07 0.0002 101.29 ± 26.27 98.14 ± 20.76 97.26 ± 20.47 96.81 ± 20.59 < 0.0001
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 206.66 ± 46.53 205.79 ± 41.49 204.82 ± 45.48 < 0.0001 207.16 ± 46.96 205.86 ± 44.10 202.37 ± 38.71 198.73 ± 38.30 < 0.0001
HDL (mg/dL) 57.38 ± 36.31 56.87 ± 30.07 56.86 ± 31.51 0.0468 57.30 ± 36.50 57.68 ± 32.82 57.26 ± 28.92 56.09 ± 27.50 0.0059
LDL (mg/dL) 125.19 ± 80.79 124.31 ± 60.11 123.64 ± 64.17 0.0309 125.16 ± 74.84 125.18 ± 60.46 123.93 ± 113.57 122.51 ± 121.11 0.0105
Smoking status     0.208      < 0.0001
 Never 168,431 (96.08) 19,019 (95.44) 13,638 (94.93)   161,079 (96.15) 22,713 (95.30) 9334 (94.81) 7962 (95.00)  
 Ex-smoker 1901 (1.08) 320 (1.61) 253 (1.76)   1773 (1.06) 371 (1.56) 177 (1.80) 153 (1.83)  
 Current smoker 4962 (2.83) 588 (2.95) 476 (3.31)   4678 (2.79) 748 (3.14) 334 (3.39) 266 (3.17)  
Alcohol consumptiona     < 0.0001      < 0.0001
 None 158,564 (90.46) 17,410 (87.37) 12,499 (87.00)   152,177 (90.84) 20,603 (86.45) 8447 (85.80) 7246 (86.46)  
 Mild 15,998 (9.13) 2390 (11.99) 1759 (12.24)   14,633 (8.73) 3085 (12.94) 1337 (13.58) 1092 (13.03)  
 Heavy 732 (0.42) 127 (0.64) 109 (0.76)   720 (0.43) 144 (0.60) 61 (0.62) 43 (0.51)  
Levels of income     0.0034      < 0.0001
 Medical aid + 1st quartile (the lowest) 36,339 (20.73) 4079 (20.47) 2833 (19.72)   34,427 (20.55) 5190 (21.78) 2022 (20.54) 1612 (19.23)  
 2nd quartile 30,713 (17.52) 3454 (17.33) 2435 (16.95)   29,337 (17.51) 4276 (17.94) 1697 (17.24) 1292 (15.42)  
 3rd quartile 44,113 (25.17) 5060 (25.39) 3610 (25.13)   42,234 (25.21) 5957 (25.00) 2503 (25.42) 2089 (24.93)  
 4th quartile (the highest) 64,129 (36.58) 7334 (36.80) 5489 (38.21)   61,532 (36.73) 8409 (35.28) 3623 (36.80) 3388 (40.42)  
Regular exercise 30,862 (17.61) 4005 (20.10) 3028 (21.08) < 0.0001 28,011 (16.72) 5330 (22.36) 2372 (24.09) 2182 (26.04) < 0.0001
Hypertension 91,855 (52.40) 10,346 (51.92) 8262 (57.51) < 0.0001 91,657 (54.71) 10,477 (43.96) 4322 (43.90) 4007 (47.81)  
Diabetes mellitus 28,077 (16.02) 3155 (15.83) 2643 (18.40) < 0.0001 28,809 (17.20) 2891 (12.13) 1121 (11.39) 1054 (12.58)  
Dyslipidemia 69,087 (39.41) 8101 (40.65) 6126 (42.64) < 0.0001 67,068 (40.03) 9434 (39.59) 3712 (37.70) 3100 (36.99)  
Age at menarche (years) 16.57 ± 1.83 16.49 ± 1.83 16.56 ± 1.81 < 0.0001 16.63 ± 1.81 16.30 ± 1.86 16.25 ± 1.82 16.35 ± 1.84  
Age at menopause (years) 49.83 ± 4.15 50.13 ± 4.15 50.24 ± 4.19 < 0.0001 49.88 ± 4.14 50.07 ± 4.00 50.04 ± 4.18 49.41 ± 4.78  
Duration of fertility (years) 33.26 ± 4.54 33.65 ± 4.52 33.68 ± 4.54 < 0.0001 33.25 ± 4.55 33.78 ± 4.33 33.79 ± 4.43 33.06 ± 4.98  
Duration of OC use (years)          < 0.0001
 Never      144,214 (86.08) 17,651 (74.06) 7295 (74.1) 6134 (73.19)  
 < 1      13,738 (8.20) 3817 (16.02) 1301 (13.21) 1071 (12.78)  
 ≥ 1      9578 (5.72) 2364 (9.92) 1249 (12.69) 1176 (14.03)  
Duration of HRT (years)     < 0.0001      
 Never 144,214 (82.27) 13,738 (68.94) 9578 (66.67)       
 < 2 17,651 (10.07) 3817 (19.15) 2364 (16.45)       
 2–5 7295 (4.16) 1301 (6.53) 1249 (8.69)       
 ≥ 5 6134 (3.50) 1071 (5.37) 1176 (8.19)       
  1. Data are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation, SD, or n (%)
  2. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, OC oral contraceptives, HRT hormone replacement therapy
  3. aAlcohol consumption: mild = up to 30 g (equivalent to 3 drinks) a day; heavy = more than 30 g a day