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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of enrolled subjects

From: β-Amyloid in blood neuronal-derived extracellular vesicles is elevated in cognitively normal adults at risk of Alzheimer’s disease and predicts cerebral amyloidosis

Groups Aβ− NCs Aβ+ NCs aMCI ADD
N 84 72 45 45
Age (years) 65.3 ± 5.5 67.2 ± 6.6# 69.6 ± 6.8** 73.9 ± 8.8***
Male 28 (33.3%) 24 (33.3%)# 21 (46.7%)# 15 (33.3%)#
Education 12.3 ± 3.3 13.4 ± 3.2# 11.0 ± 4.1# 10.8 ± 4.5#
MMSE (out of 30) 28.6 ± 1.7 28.7 ± 1.7# 24.1 ± 3.4*** 17.3 ± 5.3***
MoCA-Basic (out of 30) 25.7 ± 2.3 26.6 ± 2.4# 20.1 ± 2.9*** 11.6 ± 4.4***
AVLT-N5 7.7 ± 1.9 7.7 ± 2.3# 2.0 ± 1.6*** 0.8 ± 1.2***
AVLT-N7 22.4 ± 1.6 22.6 ± 1.4# 16.9 ± 2.1*** 15.0 ± 2.9***
STT-A 56.7 ± 16.4 55.9 ± 17.1# NA NA
STT-B 134.3 ± 38.4 131.3 ± 40.7# NA NA
AFT 18.4 ± 4.7 19.6 ± 5.0# NA NA
BNT 24.9 ± 3.3 25.8 ± 2.9# NA NA
APOE ε4 carries 23 (27.4%) 32 (44.4%)# 24 (53.3%)** 31 (68.9%)***
AV45 SUVR 1.096 ± 0.059 1.241 ± 0.060*** 1.390 ± 0.085 (11Ava)*** 1.419 ± 0.084 (12Ava)***
sMRI 75Ava (89.3%) 62Ava (86.1%) 27Ava (60.0%) 28Ava (62.2%)
Hp/TIV ratio 6.596 ± 1.944 6.304 ± 1.892# 5.534 ± 2.444* 4.066 ± 3.012***
Ent/TIV ratio 4.226 ± 1.251 3.933 ± 1.206# 3.479 ± 1.217* 2.317 ± 0.834***
PCC/TIV ratio 3.280 ± 1.840 3.456 ± 1.797# 3.651 ± 1.730# 4.320 ± 1.098#
Pre/TIV ratio 8.941 ± 4.337 9.340 ± 4.287# 9.557 ± 4.316# 11.337 ± 2.722#
  1. Data were summarized as numbers (%) or as means ± standard deviations for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Some patients with aMCI and ADD were enrolled before the end of 2016; they did not undergo the STT, AFT, and BNT scales, and some patients could not cooperate with and/or understand these tests. Thus, the results of these two groups are not listed. Indicators of sMRI were presented as the ratio of the regional volume to the TIV, multiplied by a factor of 1000. Statistical analyses were conducted using the chi-square test for categorical variables and the Kruskal–Wallis H test for continuous variables (independent two-sample t-test for STT-A/B, AFT, and BNT), followed by multiple post hoc comparisons (adjusted p value). Compared with the Aβ− NCs: *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; #> 0.05
  2. Abbreviations: β-amyloid, NCs cognitively normal controls, aMCI amnestic mild cognitive impairment, ADD Alzheimer’s disease dementia, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, MoCA-B Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Basic Version, AVLT auditory verbal learning test, N5 AVLT-delayed memory, N7 AVLT-recognition, STT shape trails test, AFT animal fluency test, BNT Boston naming test, APOE apolipoprotein E, AV45 [18F]florbetapir, SUVR standardized uptake value ratio, sMRI structural magnetic resonance imaging, TIV total intracranial volume, HP hippocampus, Ent entorhinal cortex, PCC posterior cingulate cortex, Pre precuneus, Ava available, NA not available