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Table 1 Baseline characteristics for study participants by clinical trial (n = 1495)

From: Subclinical carotid artery atherosclerosis and cognitive function in older adults

Variable BVAIT (n = 504)a WISH (n = 349)a ELITE (n = 642)a Combined
Mean ± SD or number (%)
Age (years) 61.5 ± 9.9 61.4 ± 7.1 60.6 ± 6.9 61.1 ± 8.1
Sex
 Male 308 (61.1%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 308 (20.6%)
 Female 196 (38.9%) 349 (100%) 642 (100%) 1187 (79.4%)
Race
 Non-Hispanic White 326 (64.7%) 222 (63.6%) 439 (68.4%) 987 (66.0%)
 Non-Hispanic Black 75 (14.9%) 21 (6.0%) 60 (9.3%) 156 (10.4%)
 Hispanic 55 (10.9%) 55 (15.8%) 90 (14.0%) 200 (13.4%)
 Asian or Pacific Islander 45 (8.9%) 38 (10.9%) 53 (8.3%) 136 (9.1%)
 Others 3 (0.6%) 13 (3.7%) 0 (0%) 16 (1.1%)
Education (# of years) 15.7 ± 2.0b 15.8 ± 2.0 16.0 ± 1.9 15.9 ± 2.0
Annual income $64.6k ± $29.7kb $65.3k ± $31.3kb $69.0k ± $31.0kb $66.7k ± $30.7k
Marital status
 Single, never married 45 (8.9%)b 33 (9.5%) 50 (7.8%) 128 (8.6%)
 Married 323 (64.1%)b 197 (56.4%) 368 (57.3%) 888 (59.4%)
 Separated 5 (1.0%)b 7 (2.0%) 12 (1.9%) 24 (1.6%)
 Divorced 89 (17.7%)b 80 (22.9%) 171 (26.6%) 340 (22.8%)
 Widowed 41 (8.1%)b 32 (9.2%) 41 (6.4%) 114 (7.6%)
Current smoker 17 (3.4%)b 8 (2.3%) 22 (3.4%) 47 (3.2%)
Alcohol user 221 (43.8%) 152 (43.6%) 313 (48.8%) 686 (45.9%)
Use of anti-hypertensives at baseline 190 (37.7%) 117 (33.5%) 220 (34.3%) 527 (35.3%)
Use of cholesterol lowering medication at baseline 81 (16.1%) 72 (20.6%) 126 (19.6%) 279 (18.7%)
BMI (kg/m2) 28.1 ± 4.9 26.6 ± 5.2 27.2 ± 5.4b 27.4 ± 5.2
Blood pressure (mmHg)
 Systolic 127.0 ±15.6 117.9 ± 13.9 116.5 ± 13.7b 120.4 ± 15.2
 Diastolic 78.7 ± 8.9 75.0 ± 8.6 74.5 ± 8.4b 76.0 ± 8.8
ApoE4+ 103 (22.2%)b 86 (25.7%)b 197 (30.9%)b 386 (26.9%)
CES-D scorec 6.2 ± 6.6 7.3 ± 6.82 8.3 ± 8.6 7.4 ± 7.6
CES-D score ≥ 16d 44 (8.7%) 40 (11.5%) 113 (17.6%) 197 (13.2%)
Average CIMT (mm, over 1 cm segment) 0.75 ± 0.15 0.81 ± 0.10 0.77 ± 0.11 0.77 ± 0.12
Executive function composite score − 0.012 ± 1.369 − 0.005 ± 1.323 − 0.002 ± 1.360 − 0.006 ± 1.353
Verbal memory composite score − 0.005 ± 1.317 − 0.006 ± 1.357 0.001 ± 1.348 − 0.003 ± 1.339
Visual memory composite score 0.001 ± 1.108 0.001 ±1.107 0 ± 1.103 0.001 ± 1.105
Global cognition composite score 0.014 ± 1.745 0.002 ± 1.715 − 0.001 ± 1.827 0.005 ± 1.773
  1. aTwo participants in BVAIT and 1 participant in both WISH and ELITE each did not complete the baseline cognitive exam
  2. bDiffering sample sizes: Education, BVAIT: n = 503. Income, BVAIT: n = 472; WISH: n = 319; ELITE: n = 597. Marital status, BVAIT: n = 503. Current smoker, BVAIT: n = 503. BMI, ELITE: n = 641. Blood pressure, ELITE: n = 640. ApoE4 genotype, BVAIT: n = 463; WISH: n = 334; ELITE: n = 637. CES-D score, WISH: n = 348
  3. cCES-D scores range from 0-60, with higher scores indicating more depressive symptomatology [22]
  4. dA score of 16 or higher on the CES-D indicates concern for clinical depression [30]