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Table 2 Demographics, cognitive status, and AD imaging biomarkers of participants with and without internal carotid artery calcification in the baseline

From: Intracranial internal carotid artery calcification is not predictive of future cognitive decline

  Calcification absent (n=64) Calcification present (n=166) p-value§§
Control/converter/impaired (n) 25/15/24 81/37/48 0.356
Age, years (mean±SD) 74.4±6.8 74.9±4.2 0.862
Sex
 Men (n (%)) 22 (34.3) 99 (59.6) 0.001
 Women (n (%)) 42 (65.7) 67 (40.4)
Race
 Caucasian (n (%)) 50 (78.1) 147 (88.6) 0.110
 African-American (n (%)) 12 (18.7) 13(7.8)
 Native American (n (%)) 0 (0) 1 (0.6)
 Unknown (n (%)) 2 (3.1) 5(3)
MMSE (median (Q1–Q3))§ 29 (27–30) 29 (28–30) 0.061
CDR-SB (median (IQR)) 0 (0.5) 0(1) 0.38
PACC score (median (Q1–Q3))§ 0.039 (−0.23–0.23) 0.041 (−0.16–0.27) 0.334
WMH volume, mm3 (mean±SD) 15841±14220) 24424±23447 0.173
Total hippocampal volume, mm3 (mean±SD) 7052±878 7203±890 0.727
AD cortical signature thickness, mm (mean±SD) 2.5±0.17 2.5±0.11 0.771
Centiloid (mean±SD) 15.3±73.4 5.3±75.9 0.502
Amyloid positivity (negative/positive) 30/34 84/82 0.660
  1. Asterisks represent significant post hoc tests following the Kruskal-Wallis or ANOVA models: *<0.05, **<0.005, and ***<0.0001 represent post hoc models showing a significant difference from the control group while #<0.05, ##<0.005, and ###<0.0001 show significant difference from the impaired group
  2. Abbreviations: Control, participants with CDR = 0 throughout all visits, Converter, participants converting from CDR = 0 to CDR > 0 in any of the follow-up visits, Impaired, participants with CDR > 0 in the baseline visit, MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination, CDR, Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, CDR-SB, Clinical Dementia Rating Scale Sum of Boxes, PACC, Preclinical Alzheimer Cognitive Composite, WMH volume, white matter hyperintensities volume, AA, African-American, C, Caucasian, Nat, Native American, U, unknown race, Ln ICA Ca score/volume, natural log-transformed internal carotid artery Agatston calcium score/volume, AD cortical signature thickness, cortical thickness in signature regions affected in Alzheimer disease (see Dincer et al. 2020), Centiloid, measure of global amyloid disposition based on conversion of PIB or AV45 PET SUVRs to a standardized scale. Amyloid positivity was defined based on Centiloid values > 16.4
  3. §Data is reported in form of mean ±standard deviation (SD) for normally distributed variables and as median plus the first and third quartiles (Q1–Q3) for variables without normal distribution. Normality was determined using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test
  4. §§Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare MMSE and PACC scores between the two groups. Comparison for all other variables was conducted using an independent samples t-test. Bold values indicate test with statistical significance considering a threshold of 0.05