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Table 1 Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of the study participants. For continuous variables, results are expressed as mean ± SD

From: Apolipoprotein E and sex modulate fatty acid metabolism in a prospective observational study of cognitive decline

  Cases Controls
All Female Male All Female Male
N 202 133 69 166 110 56
Age (years) 75.8 ± 4.4 76.1 ± 4.4 75.2 ± 4.5 75.1 ± 4.1 75.5 ± 4.0 74.4 ± 4.2
Sex (% female) 65.8 - - 66.3 - -
Education level, ≥ secondary school (%) 29.7 30.1 29.0 31.9 31.8 32.1
ApoE-ε4+ frequency (%) 25.7 25.6 26.1 12.0 13.6 8.9
BMI (kg m-2) 26.8 ± 4.3 26.4 ± 4.6 27.6 ± 3.7 26.3 ± 3.7 26.1 ± 4.2 26.7 ± 2.6
Number of medications regularly consumed 4.9 ± 2.8 5.2 ± 2.7 4.2 ± 2.7 3.9 ± 2.3 4.1 ± 2.1 3.4 ± 2.7
MMSE (points) 27.0 ± 2.2 27.0 ± 2.2 26.9 ± 2.2 27.9 ± 1.7 27.8 ± 1.8 28.2 ± 1.4
BVRT (points) 10.8 ± 2.1 10.6 ± 2.1 11.1 ± 2.1 11.8 ± 1.9 11.6 ± 2.0 12.2 ± 1.7
IST (points) 27.8 ± 5.8 27.7 ± 5.7 28.0 ± 6.4 31.2 ± 6.1 31.2 ± 6.4 31.1 ± 5.7
TMTA (number of correct displacements per minute) 24.1 ± 8.0 23.5 ± 7.7 25.4 ± 8.5 29.3 ± 9.3 29.1 ± 9.3 29.7 ± 9.4
TMTB (number of correct displacements per minute) 10.0 ± 5.8 9.8 ± 5.5 10.6 ± 6.5 14.5 ± 6.7 14.4 ± 6.7 14.8 ± 6.6
Glucose (mmol L-1) 5.5 ± 1.6 5.4 ± 1.8 5.5 ± 1.3 5.1 ± 1.0 4.9 ± 0.7 5.6 ± 1.4
Creatinine (mmol L-1) 83.1 ± 22.5 75.9 ± 14.2 97.0 ± 28.3 79.3 ± 18.1 73.6 ± 14.9 90.7 ± 18.5
Cholesterol (mmol L-1) 5.8 ± 0.9 5.9 ± 0.9 5.6 ± 0.9 5.8 ± 1.0 5.9 ± 1.0 5.7 ± 0.9
LDL-C (mmol L-1) 3.6 ± 0.8 3.7 ± 0.8 3.6 ± 0.8 3.6 ± 0.9 3.7 ± 1.0 3.6 ± 0.7
HDL-C (mmol L-1) 1.6 ± 0.4 1.7 ± 0.4 1.4 ± 0.4 1.6 ± 0.4 1.6 ± 0.4 1.4 ± 0.3
Triglycerides (mmol L-1) 1.4 ± 0.8 1.3 ± 0.7 1.4 ± 0.9 1.3 ± 0.7 1.2 ± 0.5 1.4 ± 0.9
  1. Abbreviations: ApoE-ε4+, carrier of the ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene; BMI, body mass index; MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination test; BVRT, Benton Visual Retention Test; IST, Isaac’s Set Test; TMTA, Trail-Making Test part A; TMTB, Trail-Making Test part B; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.