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Table 4 Evolution in overall cognitive outcomes, executive function and attention according to combined plasma MCP-1 and Aβ42/40 status

From: Plasma MCP-1 and changes on cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults

Period Aβ42/40−a/MCP1−b
n = 195
Aβ42/40/MCP1+
n = 85
Aβ42/40+ /MCP1
n = 97
Aβ42/40+ /MCP1+
n = 52
Between-group difference (95% CI)c Between-group difference (95% CI)c Between-group difference (95% CI)c Between-group difference (95% CI)c
Cognitive Composite Scored,n= 383
 12 months −0.09 (−0.12, −0.05) −0.08 (−0.18, −0.03) −0.24 (−0.39, −0.10)*** −0.23 (−0.42, −0.04)**
 24 months −0.06 (−0.10, −0.03) −0.08 (−0.19, 0.03) −0.43 (−0.58, −0.27)*** −0.28 (−0.48, −0.07)**
 36 months −0.16 (−0.20, −0.12) −0.28 (−0.24, −0.00) −0.39 (−0.56, −0.21)*** −0.23 (−0.44, −0.01)*
 48 months −0.19 (−0.24, −0.15) −0.13 (−0.26, −0.004) −0.40 (−0.59, −0.21)*** −0.41 (−0.65, −0.17)***
MMSE,n= 383
 12 months −0.12 (−0.26, 0.01) −0.09 (−0.38, 0.21) −0.45 (−0.87, −0.04)* −0.50 (−1.03, 0.02)
 24 months −0.06 (−0.20, 0.08) −0.21 (−0.52, 0.10) −0.99 (−1.43, −0.55)*** −0.36 (−0.91, 0.20)
 36 months −0.28 (−0.43, −0.13) 0.01 (−0.33, 0.36) −0.60 (−1.11, −0.08)* −0.28 (−0.90, 0.35)
 48 months −0.21 (−0.37,−0.05) −0.13 (−0.49, 0.23) −0.69 (−1.23, −0.15)* −0.66 (−1.35, 0.02)
CDR sum of boxes,n= 383
 12 months 0.14 (0.08, 0.20) 0.11 (−0.002, 0.22) 0.08 (−0.08, 0.24) 0.24 (0.04, 0.44)*
 24 months 0.13 (0.06, 0.20) 0.17 (0.03, 0.31) 0.13 (−0.07, 0.34) 0.34 (0.08, 0.59)*
 36 months 0.23 (0.15, 0.31) 0.12 (−0.06, 0.30) 0.22 (−0.05, 0.48) 0.31 (−0.01, 0.64)
 48 months 0.33 (0.23, 0.43) 0.15 (−0.07, 0.36) 0.37 (0.06, 0.68)* 0.54 (0.15, 0.93)*
Executive function composite scoree,n= 376
 12 months −0.02 (−0.05, 0.02) −0.05 (−0.17, 0.06) −0.32 (−0.49, −0.15)*** −0.13 (−0.35, 0.08)
 24 months −0.04 (−0.08, −0.004) −0.07 (−0.17, 0.06) −0.34 (−0.52, −0.17)*** −0.20 (−0.43, 0.02)
 36 months −0.10 (−0.14, −0.05) −0.08 (−0.21, 0.06) −0.39 (−0.58, −0.19)*** −0.24 (−0.48, 0.01)
 48 months −0.12 (−0.17, −0.07) −0.10 (−0.24, 0.05) −0.41 (−0.62, −0.20)*** −0.21 (−0.48, 0.06)
Attention scoref,n= 383
 12 months −0.03 (−0.05, 0.00) 0.00 (−0.09, 0.09) −0.11 (−0.24, 0.02) −0.13 (−0.29, 0.03)
 24 months −0.03 (−0.06, −0.01) −0.01 (−0.11, 0.08) −0.17 (−0.30, −0.03) −0.21 (−0.38, −0.04)*
 36 months −0.10 (−0.13, −0.07) −0.04 (−0.14, 0.06) −0.12 (−0.27, 0.02) −0.23 (−0.41, −0.05)*
 48 months −0.13 (−0.17, −0.10) −0.04 (−0.14, 0.07) −0.19 (−0.34, −0.04)* −0.29 (−0.48, −0.09)**
  1. *p value < 0.05; ** p value < 0.001; ***p value < 0.001: significant differences in the evolution of the outcomes (Aβ42/40/MCP1 as reference group)
  2. #p value < 0.05; ##p value < 0.001; ###p value < 0.001: significant difference in the evolution of the outcomes between Aβ42/40+ /MCP1 and Aβ42/40+/MCP1+ groups
  3. Models were adjusted by sex, age, BMI, MAPT group, CDR status at baseline, GDS score, and ApoE ε4 genotype
  4. Abbreviations: Aβ42/40 β-amyloid 42aa isoform/β-amyloid 40aa isoform ratio, MCP-1 Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, CDR Clinical Dementia Rating
  5. aAbnormal Aβ42/40 defined as values ≥ 107 pg/mL
  6. bAbnormal MCP-1 defined as values in the 4th quartile (> 251 pg/mL)
  7. cNegative values indicate worsening performance along follow-up, except for CDR sum of boxes (for which it is given by positive values)
  8. dBased on the z-score of 4 cognitive tests (free and total recall of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding test; 10 MMSE orientation items; Digit Symbol Substitution Test, and Category Naming Test)
  9. eBased on the z-score of 3 executive function tests (Controlled Oral Word Association Test, the Category Naming Test and the Trail Making Test-Part B)
  10. fBased on the z-score of 2 attention tests (Digit Symbol Test and the Trail Making Test-Part A)