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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of cognitively normal participants by the categories of serum zinc

From: Serum zinc levels and in vivo beta-amyloid deposition in the human brain

Characteristic Overall Categorized zinc level P
  Low Medium High  
N 241 70 80 91  
Age, y 69.73 (8.00) 70.14 (7.13) 71.04 (8.41) 68.26 (8.11) 0.067a
Female, n (%) 114 (47.30) 36 (51.43) 39 (48.75) 39 (42.86) 0.531b
Education, y 11.61 (4.76) 11.00 (4.84) 11.39 (4.92) 12.27 (4.50) 0.212a
APOE4 positivity, n (%) 44 (18.26) 14 (20.00) 15 (18.75) 15 (16.48) 0.841b
VRS, % 17.57 (16.47) 16.90 (14.33) 18.54 (17.18) 17.22 (17.47) 0.806a
MMSE 26.82 (2.67) 26.34 (2.44) 26. 93 (3.29) 27.10 (2.18) 0.189a
BMI, kg/m2 24.18 (2.92) 24.29 (3.06) 24.00 (2.80) 24.25 (2.94) 0.793a
GDS score 4.93 (5.09) 5.04 (5.24) 5.63 (5.26) 4.22 (4.76) 0.192a
Annual income status      0.887c
  < MCL, n (%) 15 (6.22) 3 (4.29) 5 (6.25) 7 (7.69)  
 ≥MCL, < 2 × MCL, n (%) 115 (47.72) 32 (45.71) 40 (50.00) 43 (47.25)  
 ≥2 × MCL, n (%) 111 (46.06) 35 (50.00) 35 (43.75) 41 (45.05)  
Zinc, μg/dL 86.85 (11.79) 73.36 (4.90) 85.04 (2.85) 98.80 (7.50) < 0.001a
Albumin, g/dL 4.49 (0.25) 4.38 (0.23) 4.53 (0.21) 4.53 (0.27) < 0.001a
Copper, μg/dL 102.32 (17.78) 100.73 (20.25) 101.91 (15.62) 103.91 (17.60) 0.515a
Calcium, mg/dL 9.45 (0.31) 9.35 (0.30) 9.46 (0.29) 9.50 (0.32) 0.010a
Iron, μg/dL 122.61 (40.75) 111.59 (41.13) 116.84 (38.35) 136.18 (39.13) < 0.001a
Transferrin, mg/dL 271.15 (39.38) 262.74 (37.04) 271.26 (38.67) 277.51 (40.92) 0.061a
Ceruloplasmin, mg/dL 24.14 (5.08) 23.91 (5.78) 24.87 (4.41) 23.67 (5.04) 0.276a
Total cholesterol, mg/dL 183.57 (31.49) 181.50 (27.66) 180.75 (28.86) 187.64 (36.05) 0.293a
Nutritional deficiency 36 (14.94) 10 (14.29) 13 (16.25) 13 (14.29) 0.922b
Neuroimage biomarkers      
 Cerebral Aβ deposition      
  Aβ retention, SUVR 1.20 (0.23) 1.26 (0.34) 1.20 (0.21) 1.16 (0.12) 0.021a
 Cerebral tau deposition (n = 58)      
  AV-1451, SUVR 1.34 (0.26) 1.36 (0.30) 1.29 (0.21) 1.38 (0.24) 0.575a
 AD-CM, SUVR 1.42 (0.12) 1.39 (0.13) 1.41 (0.12) 1.44 (0.12) 0.077a
 WMH volume, cm3 12.29 (11.68) 11.14 (10.13) 12.91 (12.37) 12.65 (12.25) 0.625a
  1. Abbreviations: MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, APOE4 apolipoprotein E ε4 allele, VRS vascular risk score, BMI body mass index, GDS geriatric depression scale, MCL minimum cost of living, beta-amyloid, AD Alzheimer’s disease, AD-CM Alzheimer’s disease signature cerebral glucose metabolism, SUVR standardized uptake value ratio
  2. Data are expressed as mean (standard deviation), unless otherwise indicated
  3. aBy one-way analysis of variance
  4. bBy chi-square test
  5. cBy Fisher exact test