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Table 2 Mixed-effects regression models of longitudinal change in composite cognitive scores across baseline amyloid accumulation stages

From: In vivo staging of regional amyloid progression in healthy middle-aged to older people at risk of Alzheimer’s disease

  Delayed recall composite score Executive function composite score Immediate learning composite score PACC3 composite score
Estimate t-statistic Estimate t-statistic Estimate t-statistic Estimate t-statistic
Intercept − 0.338 − 0.542 2.829*** 4.557 − 0.051 − 0.078 0.567 0.934
Age − 0.021** − 2.683 − 0.06*** − 7.765 − 0.029*** − 3.555 − 0.04*** − 5.344
Gender 0.482*** 5.05 0.103 1.069 0.565*** 5.655 0.528*** 5.684
Education 0.054** 3.214 0.039* 2.344 0.056** 3.184 0.063*** 3.826
Follow-up time, years 0.026*** 3.889 − 0.018** − 3.294 0.027*** 4.218 − 0.001 − 0.256
Stage I − 0.043 − 0.149 0.451 1.624 0.114 0.378 0.393 1.43
Stage II 0.099 0.356 − 0.043 − 0.164 0.21 0.731 0.209 0.799
Stage III − 0.113 − 0.479 − 0.297 − 1.326 − 0.166 − 0.68 − 0.44* − 1.981
Stage IV 0.171 0.56 − 0.433 − 1.397 0.114 0.364 − 0.08 − 0.281
Follow-up time × stage I − 0.06 − 1.593 − 0.027 − 0.897 − 0.037 − 0.99 − 0.032 − 1.007
Follow-up time × stage II 0.047 1.227 − 0.088** − 2.712 0.019 0.5 − 0.014 − 0.425
Follow-up time × stage III − 0.105*** − 3.377 − 0.084*** − 3.348 − 0.079** − 2.598 − 0.056* − 2.132
Follow-up time × stage IV − 0.299*** − 5.514 − 0.027 − 0.596 − 0.255*** − 4.783 − 0.188*** − 4.043
  1. Unstandardized estimates are presented with t-statistics. *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001. For interactions between the follow-up time in years and stage, the stage 0 group acts as a reference. Random intercepts for participants are included to account for multiple measurements