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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of non-participants and participants of the MAPT trial

From: Disparities in the participation and adherence of older adults in lifestyle-based multidomain dementia prevention and the motivational role of perceived disease risk and intervention benefits: an observational ancillary study to a randomised controlled trial

  Non-participants (N = 360) Participants p
All (N = 1270) Non-adherent (N = 446) Adherent (N = 778) Non-part. vs. part. Adh. vs. non-adh.
Age (y), median [IQR] 76 [72–80] 75 [72–78] 75 [72–78] 74 [72–78] < 0.001 0.033
Female, N (%) 252 (70.8) 810 (63.8) 273 (61.2) 508 (65.3) 0.014 0.152
Level of education,a N (%)      < 0.001 0.540
 Low 99 (28.5) 247 (19.8) 93 (21.3) 144 (18.8)   
 Intermediate 126 (36.3) 426 (34.1) 143 (32.7) 266 (34.6)   
 High 122 (35.2) 577 (46.2) 201 (46.0) 358 (46.6)   
Household monthly income, N (%)      < 0.001 0.108
 < 1000€ 44 (14.3) 79 (6.7) 36 (9.0) 38 (5.2)   
 1000–1999€ 116 (37.7) 405 (34.6) 140 (35.0) 252 (34.4)   
 2000–2999€ 84 (27.3) 346 (29.5) 107 (26.8) 226 (30.8)   
 3000–3999€ 40 (13.0) 202 (17.3) 67 (16.8) 131 (17.9)   
 > 4000€ 24 (7.8) 139 (11.9) 50 (12.5) 86 (11.7)   
Marital status, N (%)      0.034 0.567
 Single 35 (10.0) 72 (5.7) 21 (4.8) 46 (6.0)   
 Marriedb 179 (51.1) 703 (56.0) 242 (54.9) 439 (57.0)   
 Widowed 92 (26.3) 325 (25.9) 118 (26.8) 195 (25.3)   
 Separated 44 (12.6) 156 (12.4) 60 (13.6) 90 (11.7)   
Living alone, N (%) 149 (42.8) 495 (39.6) 176 (40.3) 301 (39.2) 0.284 0.712
Current working status, N (%)      0.367 0.615
 Full/part-time paid work 6 (1.7) 37 (2.9) 12 (2.8) 24 (3.1)   
 Retired 323 (92.8) 1164 (92.5) 409 (93.6) 714 (92.1)   
 Never worked 19 (5.5) 57 (4.5) 16 (3.7) 37 (4.8)   
Town popn. size > 200 000, N (%) 243 (67.5) 793 (62.4) 297 (66.6) 465 (59.8) 0.078 0.018
First source of information about trial, N (%)      < 0.001 0.018
 Doctor 157 (44.7) 349 (27.7) 135 (30.8) 199 (25.7)   
 Media 72 (20.5) 437 (34.7) 132 (30.1) 293 (37.9)   
 Intermediary c 122 (34.8) 472 (37.5) 172 (39.2) 282 (36.4)   
Family history of AD or related diseases,d N (%)      0.006 0.872
 No 213 (64.5) 691 (56.7) 237 (55.9) 429 (57.3)   
 Yes 75 (22.7) 378 (31.7) 136 (32.1) 236 (31.5)   
 Do not know 42 (12.7) 141 (11.6) 51 (12.0) 84 (11.2)   
Subjective memory complaint, N (%)      0.232 0.565
 No 68 (20.2) 203 (16.7) 77 (18.1) 122 (16.2)   
 Yes 236 (70.0) 909 (74.6) 309 (72.7) 568 (75.5)   
 Do not know 33 (9.8) 107 (8.8) 39 (9.2) 62 (8.2)   
Reporting of memory complaint, N (%)      0.054 0.719
 Only to doctor 61 (17.9) 198 (16.0) 72 (16.8) 118 (15.5)   
 Only to friends/family 62 (18.2) 309 (25.0) 101 (23.6) 196 (25.7)   
 To doctor and friends/family 82 (24.0) 297 (24.0) 98 (22.9) 185 (24.3)   
 To no one/no memory complaint 136 (39.9) 432 (35.0) 157 (36.7) 264 (34.6)   
Impact of memory problems on everyday life, N (%)      0.245 0.057
 It bothers me a lot 11 (3.2) 55 (4.5) 28 (6.5) 23 (3.0)   
 It bothers me a little 122 (35.5) 430 (34.8) 137 (32.0) 271 (35.7)   
 It does not really bother me 119 (34.6) 460 (37.3) 161 (37.6) 287 (37.8)   
 It does not bother me at all 59 (17.2) 210 (17.0) 75 (17.5) 127 (16.7)   
 I do not have any memory problems 33 (9.6) 79 (6.4) 27 (6.3) 52 (6.8)   
Memory problem pointed out by friends/family, N (%)      0.549 0.168
 Yes, very often 14 (4.7) 70 (6.3) 32 (8.4) 36 (5.3)   
 Yes, sometimes 115 (39) 395 (35.7) 131 (34.4) 245 (35.9)   
 Yes, rarely 83 (28.1) 337 (30.5) 120 (31.5) 204 (29.9)   
 No 83 (28.1) 304 (27.5) 98 (25.7) 198 (29.0)   
Memory problems considered to be a risk, N (%)      0.008 0.103
 Yes, it is a very big risk for developing diseases 66 (20.1) 324 (26.6) 126 (30.1) 190 (25.1)   
 Yes, it could be a risk 205 (62.3) 753 (61.8) 238 (56.8) 485 (64.2)   
 No, it is not a major risk 48 (14.6) 114 (9.4) 44 (10.5) 64 (8.5)   
 No, it is not a risk at all 10 (3.0) 28 (2.3) 11 (2.6) 17 (2.3)   
Perceived risk of Alzheimer’s disease,e median [IQR] 3.0 [2.8–3.5] 3.3 [2.8–3.5] 3.3 [2.9–3.8] 3.3 [2.8–3.5] 0.001 0.003
Perceived social support,e median [IQR] 3.5 [2.8–4.0] 3.3 [2.8–4.0] 3.3 [2.8–3.8] 3.3 [3.0–4.0] 0.332 0.002
Emotional stability,e mean (SD) 2.5 (0.6) 2.4 (0.6) 2.5 (0.6) 2.4 (0.6) 0.012 0.009
Internal locus of control,e mean (SD) 2.7 (0.5) 2.8 (0.4) 2.8 (0.4) 2.8 (0.4) 0.123 0.483
External locus of control (chance),e mean (SD) 2.4 (0.7) 2.4 (0.6) 2.4 (0.6) 2.4 (0.6) 0.585 0.136
External locus of control (powerful others),e mean (SD) 2.7 (0.6) 2.7 (0.5) 2.7 (0.5) 0.7 (0.5) 0.438 0.561
CDR 0.5, N (%) N/A 499 (40.8) 191 (42.8) 308 (39.6) N/A 0.275
APO4 ɛ4, N (%) N/A 230 (23.6) 66 (22.8) 164 (23.9) N/A 0.728
Hypercholesterolemia, N (%) N/A 352 (29.4) 132 (30.1) 220 (29.0) N/A 0.684
≥ 1 IADL limitation, N (%) N/A 58 (4.9) 28 (6.5) 30 (4.0) N/A 0.055
≥ 1 Fried frailty criteria, N (%) N/A 510 (43.7) 208 (48.6) 302 (40.8) N/A 0.010
CAIDE dementia risk score ≥ 6, N (%) N/A 1026 (86.1) 378 (87.5) 648 (85.3) N/A 0.284
BMI, N (%) N/A     N/A 0.041
 18.5–24.9   522 (43.2) 169 (38.6) 353 (45.8)   
 25–29.9   503 (41.6) 193 (44.1) 310 (40.2)   
 ≥ 30   184 (15.2) 76 (17.4) 108 (14.0)   
SBP, median [IQR] N/A 140 [130–152] 140 [130–153] 140 [130–151] N/A 0.492
DBP, mean (SD) N/A 79.3 (11.1) 79.3 (11.3) 79.3 (11.1) N/A 0.986
Cognitive composite score, mean (SD) N/A 0.07 (0.65) − 0.04 (0.69) 0.13 (0.61) N/A < 0.001
Depressive symptoms (GDS score), median [IQR] N/A 3 [1–4] 3 [2–5] 2 [1–4] N/A < 0.001
Subjective memory function, mean (SD) N/A 49.8 (16.8) 50.8 (17.2) 49.3 (16.5) N/A 0.130
  1. a Low education = primary school certificate or lower; intermediate education = middle/vocational school; high education = high school diploma (e.g. baccalaureate) or higher; b or living as a couple; c conferences organized by pension fund organisations, word of mouth, participants from previous studies, and via organisations such as local Alzheimer’s associations, University of the 3rd Age, sports clubs and home-help organisations; d blood relative with memory problems, AD or ‘senility’; e score/4; higher scores indicate, respectively: greater perceived risk of Alzheimer’s disease, more social support, less emotional stability (i.e. more anxious), higher importance to internal locus of control, higher importance to external locus of control/chance, higher importance to external locus of control/medical professionals