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Table 3 Distribution of participant characteristics and their association with Aβ misfolding and clinical Alzheimer’s disease

From: Aβ misfolding in blood plasma is inversely associated with body mass index even in middle adulthood

  Aβ misfolding clinical Alzheimer’s disease
Characteristic at baseline Ntotal
(col %)
NAbeta+
(row %)
OR (95% CI) p-valueb Ntotal
(col %)
NAD
(row %)
OR (95% CI) p-valueb
Adjusteda Adjustedc
Diabetes No 686 (78.7) 100 (14.6) Ref.   5066 (85.6) 116 (2.3) Ref.  
Yes 186 (21.3) 31 (16.7) 1.02 (0.59–1.77) .9357 855 (14.4) 30 (3.5) 1.10 (0.65–1.87) .7144
Physical activity Inactive 278 (31.9) 35 (12.6) Ref.   1110 (18.6) 49 (4.4) Ref.  
Low 420 (48.2) 68 (16.2) 1.44 (0.82–2.53) .2088 2705 (45.3) 57 (2.1) 0.57 (0.39–0.85) .0056
Medium/high 173 (19.9) 28 (16.2) 1.14 (0.58–2.25) .6978 2158 (36.1) 40 (1.9) 0.64 (0.41–1.01) .0548
Smoking Never 462 (54.9) 66 (14.3) Ref.   2974 (50.8) 83 (2.8) Ref.  
Former 281 (33.4) 47 (16.7) 1.07 (0.61–1.87) .8103 1975 (33.7) 42 (2.1) 0.89 (0.59–1.35) .5957
Current 98 (11.7) 17 (17.4) 1.19 (0.57–2.47) .6452 908 (15.5) 16 (1.8) 1.07 (0.61–1.86) .8212
Frailty index Non-frail
0 to ≤0.20
206 (38.8) 31 (15.1) Ref.   2337 (53.0) 39 (1.7) Ref.  
Pre-frail
> 0.20 to < 0.45
253 (47.7) 50 (19.8) 1.14 (0.68–1.91) .6132 1742 (39.5) 45 (2.6) 1.11 (0.71–1.72) .6468
Frail
≥0.45
72 (13.6) 9 (12.5) 0.75 (0.35–1.58) .6452 330 (7.5) 15 (4.6) 2.02 (1.103.95) .0275
  1. aAdjusted for all variables listed in Table 1 and case/control status
  2. bp-value derived from multiple logistic regression for adjusted odds ratios
  3. cAdjusted for all variables listed in Table 1