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Table 5 Demographic summary of DIAGNOSE CTE Research Project sample at baseline

From: Developing methods to detect and diagnose chronic traumatic encephalopathy during life: rationale, design, and methodology for the DIAGNOSE CTE Research Project

  Former NFL players (PRO) Former college football players (COL) Unexposed (UE) p valuea
Total N 120 60 60
Age, mean (SD) years 59.1 (7.8) 53.5 (7.7) 59.3(8.3) < 0.01b
Age by decade, n (%) years
 45–54 42 (35.0) 44 (73.3) 23 (38.3) < 0.01
 55–64 46 (38.3) 9 (15.0) 15 (25.0)
 65–75 32 (26.7) 7 (11.7) 22 (36.7)
Body mass index, mean (SD) kg/m2 32.0 (4.5) 33.8 (4.8) 30.8 (4.5) < 0.01c
Years of education, mean (SD) 16.6 (1.1) 17.1 (1.0) 17.3 (3.4) 0.38
Level of education, n (%)
 Some college, no degree 15 (12.5) 5 (8.3) 7 (11.7) < 0.01
 Associate degree 2 (1.7) 1 (1.7) 8 (13.3)
 Bachelor’s degree 82 (68.3) 35 (58.3) 23 (38.3)
 Master’s degree 16 (13.3) 17(28.3) 12 (20.0)
 Doctoral degree 5 (4.2) 2 (3.4) 10 (16.7)
Racial Identity, n (%)
 American Indian or Alaska Native 1 (0.8) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0.05
 Black or African American 51 (42.5) 10 (16.7) 24 (40.0)
 Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.7)
 White 66 (55.0) 48 (80.0) 35 (58.3)
 Multiracial 1 (0.8) 1 (1.7) 0 (0.0)
 Not reported 1 (0.8) 1 (1.7) 0 (0.0)
Ethnicity, n (%)
 Hispanic or Latino 3 (2.5) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0.28
 Not Hispanic or Latino 117 (97.5) 60 (100.0) 59 (98.3)
 Unknown/not reported 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.7)
Marital status, n (%)
 Never married 5 (4.2) 3 (5.0) 15 (25.0) < 0.01
 Married or domestic partnership 88 (73.3) 43 (70.0) 31 (51.6)
 Divorced or separated 23 (19.2) 14 (23.3) 13 (21.7)
 Widowed 1 (0.8) 1 (1.7) 0 (0.0)
 Other 3 (2.5) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.7)
Employment status, n (%)
 Working full-time 57 (47.5) 40 (66.7) 27 (45.0) < .01
 Working part-time 10 (8.3) 0 (0.0) 11 (18.3)
 Unemployed 1 (0.8) 7 (11.7) 1 (1.7)
 Retired 38 (31.7) 9 (15.0) 21 (35.0)
 Disabled 13 (10.8) 2 (3.3) 0 (0.0)
 Other/refused 1 (0.8) 2 (3.3) 0 (0.0)
Level of father’s education, n (%)
 Less than high school 24 (20.0) 3 (5.0) 8 (13.3) 0.01
 High school diploma or graduate equivalent degree (GED) 43 (35.8) 15 (25.0) 18 (30.0)
 Some college or associate degree 10 (8.3) 11 (18.3) 6 (10.0)
 Bachelor’s degree 15 (12.5) 19 (31.7) 12 (20.0)
 Master’s degree 9 (7.5) 6 (10.0) 10 (16.7)
 Doctoral degree 7 (5.8) 4 (6.7) 3 (5.0)
 Unknown 12 (10.0) 2 (3.3) 3 (5.0)
Level of mother’s education, n (%)
 Less than high school 19 (15.8) 4 (6.7) 5 (8.3) 0.04
 High school diploma or GED 52 (43.3) 21 (35.0) 22 (36.7)
 Some college or associate degree 16 (13.3) 11 (18.3) 11 (18.3)
 Bachelor’s degree 18 (15.0) 17 (28.3) 10 (16.7)
 Master’s degree 6 (5.0) 6 (10.0) 8 (13.3)
 Doctoral degree 1 (0.8) 1 (1.7) 3 (5.0)  
 Unknown 8 (6.7) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.7)  
History of learning disability or ADHD, n (%) 9 (7.5) 10 (16.7) 1 (1.7) 0.02
Site evaluated, n (%)
 Boston 26 (21.7) 18 (30.0) 20 (33.3) 0.58
 Las Vegas 33 (27.5) 13 (21.7) 11 (18.3)
 New York 28 (23.3) 15 (25.0) 16 (26.7)
 Scottsdale/Phoenix 33 (27.5) 14 (23.3) 13 (21.7)
Primary position at highest level of football, n (%)
 Offensive lineman 22 (18.3) 22 (36.7) 0.09
 Defensive lineman 14 (11.7) 5 (8.3)
 Offensive back or receiver 36 (30.0) 14 (23.3)
 Linebacker 21 (17.5) 7 (11.7)
 Defensive back 23 (19.2) 12 (20.0)
 Special teams 4 (3.3) 0 (0.0)  
Total years of football, mean (SD) 18.0 (3.3) 11.5 (2.5) <  0.01
Total fall seasons of college football, mean (SD) 4.1 (0.5) 3.9 (0.6) 0.11
Total years of NFL participation, mean (SD) 7.4 (2.7)
Age of first exposure to football, mean (SD) 11.5 (2.8) 10.2 (2.6) <  0.01
Neuroimaging data available, n (%)
 Magnetic resonance imaging 114 (95.0) 55 (91.7) 56 (93.3)
 Tau PET – Flortaucipir 112 (93.3) 58 (96.7) 58 (96.7)
 Amyloid PET – Florbetapir 119 (99.2) 60 (100.0) 58 (96.7)
Biofluids collected, n (%)
 Cerebrospinal fluid 102 (85.0) 40 (66.7) 46 (76.7)
 Blood (plasma, serum, whole blood) 118 (98.3) 58 (96.7) 58 (96.7)
 Saliva 120 (100.0) 60 (100.0) 58 (96.7)
MoCA total raw score, mean (SD) 24.3 (3.5) 25.4 (3.2) 26.5 (2.3) < 0.01d
Functional Activities Questionnaire – Informant Total, mean (SD) 3.9 (5.5) 3.2 (4.9) 0.4 (2.4) < 0.01e
ApoE genotype – n (%) ε4 carriersf 33 (28.7) 20 (33.9) 11 (19.6) 0.22
  1. aCategorical variables compared with chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests. Continuous variables compared with T-test or ANOVA (for normally distributed data) or Mann-Whitney U or Kruskal-Wallis tests (for non-normally distributed data). Significant ANOVA post hoc pairwise group comparisons examined with Student-Newman-Keuls test
  2. bPRO=UE > COL
  3. cPRO=UE < COL
  4. dPRO=COL<UE
  5. ePRO=COL>UE
  6. fApoE genotyping unavailable for 10 participants (5 PRO, 1 COL, 4 UE)