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Table 1 Demographic characteristics and the neuropsychological assessments among study participants

From: Plasma biomarker profiles and the correlation with cognitive function across the clinical spectrum of Alzheimer’s disease

  Total Clinical diagnosis
NC aMCI-s aMCI-m Mild AD Moderate AD Severe AD  
CDR = 0 CDR = 0.5 CDR = 0.5 CDR = 1 CDR = 2 CDR = 3  
\Demographic characteristics (N = 451) (N = 131) (N = 39) (N = 113) (N = 67) (N = 63) (N = 38) P value
 Gender, female, n (%) 260 (57.6) 82 (62.6) 14 (35.9) 69 (61.1) 31 (46.3) 38 (60.3) 26 (68.4) 0.011
 Age, y, mean (SD) 68.6 (8.8) 69.2 (7.1) 69.6 (9.3) 70.0 (8.0) 67.7 (9.7) 69.1 (10.8) 62.3 (8.2) <0.001
 Education years, mean (SD) 10.3 (4.1) 11.8 (2.9) 13.6 (3.6) 10.2 (3.6) 10.3 (3.6) 8.4 (4.6) 5.6 (4.0) <0.001
 Smoking, n (%) 79 (17.5) 17 (13.0) 5 (12.8) 23 (20.4) 15 (22.4) 12 (19.0) 7 (18.4) 0.529
 Alcohol consumption, n (%) 77 (17.1) 19 (14.5) 4 (10.3) 21 (18.6) 18 (26.9) 12 (19.0) 3 (7.9) 0.139
 Hypertension, n (%) 168 (37.3) 53 (40.5) 17 (43.6) 44 (38.9) 23 (34.3) 22 (34.9) 9 (23.7) 0.461
 Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 68 (15.1) 19 (14.5) 7 (17.9) 19 (16.8) 8 (11.9) 10 (15.9) 5 (13.2) 0.933
 APOE ε4-positive, n (%) 161 (35.7) 13 (9.9) 12 (30.8) 48 (42.5) 30 (44.8) 36 (57.1) 22 (57.9) <0.001
Neuropsychological tests
 MMSE score, mean (SD) 23.3 (6.7) 29.0 (1.3) 27.7 (1.7) 25.8 (1.9) 21.9 (1.4) 15.7 (2.3) 7.4 (2.6) <0.001
 Memorya, median [Q1, Q3] −0.07 [−1.18, 0.72] 0.87 [0.56, 1.50] 0.16 [−0.23, 0.72] −0.23 [−0.71, 0.72] −0.71 [−1.18, −0.23] −1.18 [−1.18, −0.82] −1.18 [−1.18, −1.18] <0.001
 Execution functiona, median [Q1, Q3] 0.43 [−1.25, 0.43] 0.43 [0.43, 0.43] 0.43 [0.43, 1.49] −0.41 [−1.25, 1.28] 0.43 [−1.25, 0.43] −1.25 [−1.25, −0.41] −1.25 [−1.25, −1.25] <0.001
 Attentiona, median [Q1, Q3] 0.43 [−0.39, 0.83] 0.83 [0.67, 0.83] 0.69 [0.40, 0.83] 0.43 [−0.21, 0.83] −0.36 [−0.78, 0.43] −1.46 [−1.99, −0.39] −2.01 [−2.42, −2.01] <0.001
 Languagea, median [Q1, Q3] 0.58 [−0.27, 0.72] 0.72 [0.58, 0.72] 0.58 [0.16, 0.72] −0.27 [−0.66, 0.72] −0.27 [−1.16, 0.72] −0.27 [−1.26, 0.72] −1.26 [−2.25, −0.27] <0.001
 Visuospatial functiona, median [Q1, Q3] 0.31 [−0.63, 0.93] 0.93 [0.62, 0.93] 0.76 [0.31, 0.93] 0.15 [−0.32, 0.62] −0.63 [−1.25, −0.005] −1.25 [−1.87, −0.32] −1.87 [−2.18, −1.02] <0.001
  1. Note: aZ score transformed. NC, normal cognition; aMCI-s, amnestic mild cognitive impairment-single domain; aMCI-m, amnestic mild cognitive impairment-multiple domains; AD, Alzheimer’s disease clinical syndrome; CDR, Clinical Dementia Rating Scale; SD, standard deviation; Q1, quartile 1; Q3, quartile 3; APOE, apolipoprotein E; MMSE, mini-mental state examination