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Table 1 Sociodemographic and neuropsychological variables for monolingual and bilingual MCI patients

From: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study on the protective effect of bilingualism against dementia using brain atrophy and cognitive measures

  Monolinguals (N = 60)a Bilinguals (N = 39)a Statistical differences p value
Gender M/F = 26/34 M/F = 24/15 χ2 = 3.13 0.08
Age 73.58 (5.76) 74.26 (5.78) t = − 0.56 0.57
Years of schooling 8.62 (3.45) 8.33 (2.43) t = 0.47 0.63
Cognitive level − 0.05 (0.6) 0.07 (0.64) t = − 1.00 0.32
MMSE 26.95 (2.63) 27.23 (2.18) − 0.55 0.58
FAQ 3.3 (2.58) 3.82 (2.48) − 0.97 0.32
Boston 9.33 (1.45) 9.77 (1.31) − 1.52 0.13
Phonetic fluency 8.37 (2.14) 8.51 (2.62) − 0.30 0.76
Semantic fluency 10.63 (2.47) 10.74 (2.19) − 0.23 0.82
WLA 9.03 (2.88) 9.79 (2.78) − 1.30 0.20
WLR 1.07 (0.86) 1.10 (0.91) − 0.20 0.84
Remote memory 9.18 (1.46) 9.49 (1.23) − 1.08 0.28
Clock-drawing 7.14 (1.80) 7.00 (1.41) 0.39 0.69
  1. N sample size, M/F males/females, χ2 chi-squared test, t t-value for two-sample t test, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, FAQ Functional Activities Questionnaire, WLA word list acquisition, WLR word list recall
  2. aMean and standard deviation (in parentheses) are shown for quantitative variables