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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the participants

From: Smaller pineal gland is associated with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in Alzheimer’s disease

  Without pRBD (n = 257) With pRBD (n = 39) p
Age (years, mean ± SD) 77.4 ± 7.4 76.8 ± 7.4 0.634a
Sex (women, %) 69.3 79.5 0.191a
Education (years, mean ± SD) 9.9 ± 5.6 8.1 ± 5.5 0.065a
Presence of cohabitants, (present, %) 80.5 74.4 0.371a
Duration of AD (months, mean ± SD) 36.9 ± 25.7 44.0 ± 37.8 0.265a
Drugs influencing sleep or motor activity (users, %) 29.2 38.5 0.240a
History of head injury (present, %) 9.0 10.3 0.792a
Alcohol drinking (SU/week, mean ± SD) 1.8 ± 7.1 0.7 ± 3.4 0.375a
Smoking (packs/day, mean ± SD) 0.1 ± 0.6 0.0 ± 0.2 0.750a
GDS (points, mean ± SD) 12.2 ± 6.9 16.5 ± 6.7 < 0.001a
CDR (points, mean ± SD) 0.7 ± 0.4 0.9 ± 0.5 0.903a
STOP-BANG (points, mean ± SD) 2.3 ± 0.9 2.6 ± 1.0 0.041a
RBDSQ (points, mean ± SD)
 Total score 1.4 ± 1.2 6.1 ± 1.4 < 0.001a
 Item-6 score 0.2 ± 0.5 1.2 ± 1.2 < 0.001a
Intracranial volume (cm3, mean ± SD) 1515.5 ± 147.7 1509.1 ± 154.1 0.805a
VPP (mm3, mean ± SD) 69.5 ± 18.5 51.7 ± 10.8 < 0.001b
Cerebral amyloid deposition (present, %) 31.9 28.2 0.643a
  1. Abbreviations: pRBD probable REM sleep behavior disorder, SD standard deviation, AD Alzheimer’s disease, SU standard units, GDS Geriatric Depression Scale, CDR Clinical Dementia Rating, RBDSQ REM Sleep Behavior Disorder Screening Questionnaire, VPP pineal parenchyma volume
  2. aIndependent sample t test for continuous variables and chi-square test for categorical variables
  3. bAnalysis of covariance adjusted for age, sex, years of education, intracranial volume, head injury, amount of smoking, amount of alcohol drinking, and use of drugs influencing sleep or motor activity