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Table 1 Characteristics of participants by cognitive status

From: Retinal microvasculature dysfunction is associated with Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment

Characteristics AD (n = 24) MCI (n = 37) Control (n = 29) P value*
Age 74.9 ± 6.0 77.9 ± 6.4 76.7 ± 5.3 0.176
Gender, female 17 (73) 16 (44) 13 (45) 0.082
Race, Chinese 16 (84) 30 (82) 23 (79) 0.082
Diabetes, yes 9 (41) 10 (32) 4 (14) 0.039
Hypertension, yes 15 (78) 21 (62) 17 (59) 0.319
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 148 ± 11 139 ± 18 131 ± 16 0.008
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 73 ± 9 70 ± 9 70 ± 8 0.363
MMSE 20.3 ± 6.1 23.9 ± 6.3 24.8 ± 4.8 0.026
Neuroimaging markers
 MTA scores 1.3 ± 0.7 1.4 ± 0.8 1.7 ± 0.7 0.297
 GCA scores 1.5 ± 0.6 1.6 ± 0.6 2.3 ± 0.8 0.006
 WMH scores 1.6 ± 0.7 1.5 ± 0.7 2.1 ± 0.7 0.098
Signal strength, out of 10 9.8 ± 0.8 9.8 ± 0.5 9.6 ± 0.7 0.010
  1. Data presented are mean (SD) or number (%), as appropriate
  2. AD Alzheimer’s disease, MCI mild cognitive impairment, MMSE Mini-Mental State Exam, MTA medial temporal atrophy, GCA global cortical atrophy, WMH white matter hyperintensities
  3. *P value was obtained with ANOVA for the continuous variables and with chi-square tests for categorical variables