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Table 2 Baseline characteristics and plasma S1P levels of participants based on to their cognitive groups (n = 384)

From: Immunomodulatory sphingosine-1-phosphates as plasma biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease and vascular cognitive impairment

Characteristics NCI (n = 80) CIND (n = 160) AD (n = 113) VaD (n = 31) p value
Demographic and disease variables
 Age, years, mean (SD) 68.8 (6.3) 72.0 (8.1)* 76.2 (7.7)*† 72.9 (8.8) < 0.001
 Female, no.(%) 41 (51.3) 80 (50.0) 77 (68.1) 11 (35.5) 0.002
 Education ≤ primary, no.(%) 25 (31.3) 83 (51.9) 30 (26.6) 14 (45.2) < 0.001
 APOE4 carrier, no.(%) 14 (17.5) 49 (30.6) 40 (35.4) 8 (25.8) 0.051
 Hypertension, no.(%) 45 (56.3) 109 (68.1) 90 (79.7) 31 (100.0) < 0.001
 Diabetes, no.(%) 18 (22.5) 55 (34.4) 47 (41.6) 16 (51.6) 0.01
 Cardiovascular disease, no.(%) 5 (6.3) 26 (16.3) 21 (18.6) 12 (38.7) 0.001
 Hyperlipidemia, no.(%) 54 (67.5) 121 (75.6) 82 (72.6) 29 (93.6) 0.04
Blood-based markers
 IL-6, pg/mL, median (IQR) 0.79 (2.5) 1.10 (2.4) 1.59 (2.3) 1.75 (2.9) 0.063
 IL-8, pg/mL, median (IQR) 4.48 (1.9) 5.20 (3.6) 5.65 (4.0) 5.68 (4.7) < 0.001
 TNF, pg/mL, median (IQR) 4.05 (2.9) 4.47 (2.8) 5.28 (3.5)‡§ 5.98 (4.0)‡§ < 0.001
 d16:1 S1P, nM, median (IQR) 58.2 (31) 55.4 (25) 53.1 (24) 49.9 (14)‡§ 0.007
 d17:1 S1P, nM, median (IQR) 17.4 (5.4) 16.6 (6.0) 15.7 (6.5) 16.2 (4.2) 0.486
 d18:0 S1P, nM, median (IQR) 60.1 (19.9) 60.9 (20.1) 62.5 (21.0) 66.1 (29.5) 0.607
 d18:1 S1P, nM, median (IQR) 483.2 (134) 484.9 (157) 483.1 (189) 582.2 (256) 0.127
 d18:1 to d16:1 ratio, median (IQR) 8.5 (3.9) 9.6 (5.0) 9.8 (5.3) 11.5 (5.2)‡§# < 0.001
  1. Bold texts indicate p values for significant tests by one-way ANOVA (age); chi-square (gender, primary education, APOE carrier, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia); Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA (blood-based markers)
  2. NCI non-cognitive impairment, CIND cognitive impairment no dementia, S1P sphingosine-1-phosphate, n number of cases, SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range
  3. *Significantly different from NCI (one-way ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni tests p < 0.05)
  4. Significantly different from CIND (one-way ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni tests p < 0.05)
  5. #Significant chi-square tests (p < 0.05)
  6. Significantly different from NCI (Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA with post hoc Dunn’s tests p < 0.05)
  7. §Significantly different from CIND (Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA with post hoc Dunn’s tests p < 0.05)
  8. #Significantly different from AD (Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA with post hoc Dunn’s tests p < 0.05)