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Table 1 Characteristic of the study cohort at baseline in middle-aged and older adults from CHARLS

From: Associations between social and intellectual activities with cognitive trajectories in Chinese middle-aged and older adults: a nationally representative cohort study

Characteristic Value (n = 8204)
Age (years), mean ± SD 60.09 ± 6.37
Male sex, n (%) 4289 (52.3)
Educational level, n (%)
 No formal education 3551 (43.3)
 Primary school 2011 (24.5)
 Middle or high school 2270 (27.7)
 College or above 372 (4.5)
Married, n (%) 7310 (89.1)
Rural residence, n (%) 4906 (59.8)
High household income, n (%) 2351 (28.7)
Current smoker, n (%) 2757 (33.6)
Current drinker, n (%) 2856 (34.8)
Poor self-report of health, n (%) 2107 (25.7)
Depressive symptoms, n (%) 2854 (34.8)
Restriction on ADL, n (%) 1157 (14.1)
Visual impairment, n (%) 464 (5.7)
Hearing impairment, n (%) 600 (7.3)
Comorbidity, n (%)*
 0 1166 (14.2)
 1 1941 (23.7)
 ≥ 2 5097 (62.1)
BMI (kg/m2), mean ± SD 23.54 ± 3.92
Social activity scores, n (%)
 0 4919 (60.0)
 1–2 1460 (17.8)
 ≥ 3 1825 (22.2)
Intellectual activity scores, n (%)
 0 6407 (78.1)
 1–2 1193 (14.5)
 ≥ 3 604 (7.4)
Global cognitive scores, mean ± SD 11.71 ± 3.43
Mental intactness scores, mean ± SD 7.82 ± 2.64
Episodic memory scores, mean ± SD 3.89 ± 1.61
  1. CHARLS China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, ADL activities of daily living, BMI body mass index
  2. *Based on nine self-reported, physician-diagnosed conditions, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, heart diseases, stroke, chronic lung disease, chronic kidney disease, arthritis, and cancer