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Table 2 Adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of Alzheimer’s disease according to vascular risk factors

From: Associations between vascular risk factors and subsequent Alzheimer’s disease in older adults

  Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 P for trend Sex × group interaction P
Total cholesterol
 Ranges (mg/dL) < 200 200–239 ≥ 240   
 Total population, age- and sex-aHR 1 [reference] 1.013 (0.971–1.058) 1.085 (1.025–1.149) 0.013  
 Total population, aHR 1 [reference] 1.035 (0.991–1.082) 1.089 (1.025–1.156) 0.005  
 Male, aHR 1 [reference] 0.998 (0.924–1.079) 1.055 (0.929–1.198) 0.574 0.339
 Female, aHR 1 [reference] 1.055 (1.000–1.114) 1.102 (1.028–1.181) 0.004  
LDL cholesterol
 Ranges (mg/dL) < 100 100–129 130–159 160–189 ≥ 190   
 Total population, age- and sex-aHR 1 [reference] 0.952 (0.908–0.997) 0.981 (0.932–1.034) 1.045 (0.973–1.122) 1.017 (0.906–1.142) 0.658  
 Total population, aHR 1 [reference] 1.006 (0.959–1.055) 1.046 (0.991–1.103) 1.116 (1.039–1.199) 1.085 (0.966–1.218) 0.004  
 Male, aHR 1 [reference] 0.957 (0.887–1.033) 0.963 (0.878–1.056) 1.073 (0.932–1.235) 1.123 (0.855–1.474) 0.928 0.208
 Female, aHR 1 [reference] 1.044 (0.981–1.111) 1.096 (1.026–1.171) 1.150 (1.056–1.252) 1.095 (0.961–1.247) 0.0003  
HDL cholesterol
 Ranges (mg/dL) ≥ 60 59–40 < 40   
 Total population, age- and sex-aHR 1 [reference] 0.965 (0.924–1.008) 1.000 (0.940–1.062)    0.528  
 Total population, aHR§ 1 [reference] 0.945 (0.904–0.988) 0.941 (0.882–1.004)    0.019  
 Male, aHR§ 1 [reference] 0.953 (0.880–1.031) 0.978 (0.880–1.087) 0.517 0.132
 Female, aHR§ 1 [reference] 0.943 (0.894–0.995) 0.913 (0.840–0.991) 0.012  
Triglyceride
 Ranges (mg/dL) < 150 150–199 200–499   
 Total population, age- and sex-aHR 1 [reference] 1.031 (0.981–1.085) 1.101 (1.044–1.161) 0.0004  
 Total population, aHR|| 1 [reference] 1.030 (0.978–1.084) 1.094 (1.034–1.156)   0.002  
 Male, aHR|| 1 [reference] 1.100 (1.003–1.205) 1.084 (0.978–1.201) 0.044 0.189
 Female, aHR|| 1 [reference] 1.002 (0.941–1.067) 1.100 (1.030–1.176)   0.011  
Fasting glucose
 Ranges (mg/dL) < 70 70–99 100–125 ≥ 126   
 Total population, age- and sex-aHR 1 [reference] 0.850 (0.671–1.078) 0.868 (0.684–1.102) 1.029 (0.807–1.311) < .0001  
 Total population, aHR# 1 [reference] 0.897 (0.707–1.138) 0.882 (0.695–1.120) 0.896 (0.702–1.143) 0.689  
 Male, aHR# 1 [reference] 0.839 (0.577–1.219) 0.825 (0.567–1.200) 0.907 (0.618–1.330) 0.358 0.09
 Female, aHR# 1 [reference] 0.932 (0.685–1.268) 0.918 (0.674–1.250) 0.891 (0.650–1.222) 0.27  
Systolic blood pressure
 Ranges (mmHg) < 120 120–129 130–139 ≥ 140   
 Total population, age- and sex-aHR 1 [reference] 0.951 (0.898–1.007) 0.890 (0.844–0.938) 0.887 (0.840–0.936) < .0001  
 Total population, aHR** 1 [reference] 0.925 (0.872–0.982) 0.854 (0.805–0.905) 0.827 (0.771–0.888) < .0001  
 Male, aHR** 1 [reference] 0.839 (0.577–1.219) 0.825 (0.567–1.200) 0.907 (0.618–1.330) 0.358 0.405
 Female, aHR** 1 [reference] 0.884 (0.821–0.953) 0.830 (0.772–0.893) 0.800 (0.734–0.873) < .0001  
Diastolic blood pressure
 Ranges (mmHg) < 80 80–89 ≥ 90   
 Total population, age- and sex-aHR 1 [reference] 0.988 (0.948–1.030) 0.984 (0.931–1.040) 0.5  
 Total population, aHR†† 1 [reference] 1.041 (0.996–1.089) 1.110 (1.037–1.188) 0.003  
 Male, aHR†† 1 [reference] 1.035 (0.960–1.116) 1.018 (0.904–1.147) 0.565 0.201
 Female, aHR†† 1 [reference] 1.046 (0.990–1.106) 1.158 (1.066–1.259) 0.001  
Body mass index
 Ranges < 18.5 18.5–24.9 25–29.9 30–34.9 ≥ 35   
 Total population, age- and sex-aHR 1 [reference] 1.000 (0.918–1.089) 0.958 (0.876–1.049) 0.967 (0.840–1.114) 1.397 (0.769–2.538) 0.145  
 Total population, aHR‡‡ 1 [reference] 0.981 (0.899–1.069) 0.914 (0.832–1.003) 0.901 (0.780–1.040) 1.292 (0.710–2.349) 0.067  
 Male, aHR‡‡ 1 [reference] 1.065 (0.902–1.233) 1.004 (0.854–1.181) 1.117 (0.818–1.525) 2.428 (0.602–9.792) 0.078 0.536
 Female, aHR‡‡ 1 [reference] 0.929 (0.834–1.034) 0.859 (0.765–0.964) 0.828 (0.702–0.978) 1.100 (0.567–2.135) 0.265  
  1. Adjusted for sex, age, income, lifestyles (smoking, alcohol consumption, and exercise), comorbidities, healthcare visit frequency, medication history, body mass index, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, HDL-C, triglyceride, fasting glucose, and hemoglobin. Sex was not included as a covariate in the sex subgroup analysis
  2. Adjusted for sex, age, income, lifestyles (smoking, alcohol consumption, and exercise), comorbidities, healthcare visit frequency, medication history, body mass index, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, HDL-C, triglyceride, fasting glucose, and hemoglobin. Sex was not included as a covariate in the sex subgroup analysis
  3. §Adjusted for sex, age, income, lifestyles (smoking, alcohol consumption, and exercise), comorbidities, healthcare visit frequency, medication history, body mass index, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, LDL-C, triglyceride, fasting glucose, and hemoglobin. Sex was not included as a covariate in the sex subgroup analysis
  4. ||Adjusted for sex, age, income, lifestyles (smoking, alcohol consumption, and exercise), comorbidities, healthcare visit frequency, medication history, body mass index, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, LDL-C, HDL-C, fasting glucose, and hemoglobin. Sex was not included as a covariate in the sex subgroup analysis
  5. #Adjusted for sex, age, income, lifestyles (smoking, alcohol consumption, and exercise), comorbidities, healthcare visit frequency, medication history, body mass index, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglyceride, and hemoglobin. Sex was not included as a covariate in the sex subgroup analysis
  6. **Adjusted for sex, age, income, lifestyles (smoking, alcohol consumption, and exercise), comorbidities, healthcare visit frequency, medication history, body mass index, diastolic blood pressure, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglyceride, fasting glucose, and hemoglobin. Sex was not included as a covariate in the sex subgroup analysis
  7. ††Adjusted for sex, age, income, lifestyles (smoking, alcohol consumption, and exercise), comorbidities, healthcare visit frequency, medication history, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglyceride, fasting glucose, and hemoglobin. Sex was not included as a covariate in the sex subgroup analysis
  8. ‡‡Adjusted for sex, age, income, lifestyles (smoking, alcohol consumption, and exercise), comorbidities, healthcare visit frequency, medication history, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglyceride, fasting glucose, and hemoglobin. Sex was not included as a covariate in the sex subgroup analysis