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Table 4 Repurposed agents currently in Phase I in the Alzheimer’s disease development pipeline (as of February 27, 2020)

From: Repurposed agents in the Alzheimer’s disease drug development pipeline

Agent name Phase Agent mechanism class Therapeutic purpose under study Drug class FDA-approved indication(s) Therapeutic field ClinicalTrials.gov ID(s)
Allopregnanolone (Brexanolone) I Neuroprotective, metabolic Enhanced neurogenesis slow hippocampal atrophy; improve synaptic connectivity (DMT) GABA-A receptor modulator; neuroactive steroid (antidepressant) Postpartum depression Psychiatric NCT03748303
BDPP (Bioactive Dietary Polyphenol Preparation) I Neuroprotective Prevents amyloid and tau aggregation (DMT) Polyphenol Dietary supplement Nutraceutical NCT02502253
Dabigatran I Neuroprotective Reduce neurovascular damage (DMT) Anticoagulant Reduce risk of stroke; embolism associated with atrial fibrillation, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism Hematologic-oncologic NCT03752294
Efavirenz I Anti-amyloid Increase cholesterol removal and enhance amyloid reduction (DMT) Non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor HIV/AIDS Infectious disease NCT03706885
Escitalopram I Neurotransmitter-based Increase neurotransmission (cognitive enhancer) Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor Major depressive disorder; generalized anxiety disorder Psychiatric NCT03274817
Empagliflozin I Metabolic Increase ketone levels in the brain; improve neuronal health and delay onset and progression of cognitive impairment (DMT) Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor Adjunct therapy for type 2 diabetes Antidiabetic NCT03852901
Salsalate I Anti-inflammatory Reduce neuronal injury (DMT) Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug Rheumatoid arthritis; osteoarthritis Anti-inflammatory NCT03277573
Telmisartan I Neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory Improve vascular functioning and effects on amyloid pathology (DMT) Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker Hypertension; diabetic neuropathy; risk reduction of stroke Cardiovascular NCT02471833
Venlafaxine I Neurotransmitter-based Increase neurotransmission (cognitive enhancer) Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor Major depressive disorder; general anxiety disorder; seasonal affective disorder; panic disorder Psychiatric NCT03274817
Vorinostat I Neuroprotective Multiple cellular processes including tau aggregation and amyloid deposition (DMT) Histone deacetylase inhibitor (anticancer) Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma Hematologic-oncologic NCT03056495
  1. Abbreviations: DMT, disease modifying therapy