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Table 1 Summary of the operational definitions of the modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors

From: Estimating the potential for dementia prevention through modifiable risk factors elimination in the real-world setting: a population-based study

Non-modifiable
 ▪ Age: class 1935–1937
 ▪ Sex: females
 ▪ APOE: ε4 carriers
Modifiable
 ▪ Low education: ≤ 5 years of formal education
 ▪ Obesity: BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2
 ▪ Hypertension: systolic blood pressure > 130 mmHg
  OR diastolic blood pressure > 80 mmHg
  OR antihypertensive medication
 ▪ Diabetes: fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL
  OR diabetes treatment
 ▪ Depression: DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of major depression or dysthymia OR at least 3 of these features: (i) history of depression, (ii) depression treatment, (iii) GDS ≥ 8, and (iv) self-reported depressed mood during the last week.
 ▪ Smoking: current smokers
 ▪ Physical inactivity: absence of any weekly vigorous or moderate leisure time physical activity
 ▪ Hearing loss: evaluated by the physician with the Whispered Voice Test
 ▪ Loneliness: feeling lonely during the last week
 ▪ Heart disease: anamnestic diagnosis
 ▪ Stroke: anamnestic diagnosis
 ▪ Head injury: anamnestic diagnosis
 ▪ Delirium: anamnestic diagnosis