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Table 3 Descriptives, effect sizes, and results of ANCOVA for cognitive test scores

From: Effects of low- and high-intensity physical exercise on physical and cognitive function in older persons with dementia: a randomized controlled trial

TestaGroupBaseline12 weeks24 weeksEffect sizeb, baseline-12 weeksF(1, 66)d, pEffect sizeb, baseline-24 weeksF(1, 66)d, p
MMSE (score)Exercise21.4 (3.94)21.0 (4.38)20.4 (4.77)− 0.05 [− 0.53, 0.43]0.11, p > 0.05− 0.04 [− 0.52, 0.44]0.04, p > 0.05
Control19.5 (4.77)19.4 (5.64)18.8 (5.88)
TMTA (s)Exercise121 (64.2)123 (63.7)126 (65.3)− 0.03 [− 0.51, 0.45]0.51, p > 0.05− 0.14 [− 0.62, 0.34]0.52, p > 0.05
Control156 (65.2)156 (61.1)153 (56.6)
STROOP word (no. of correct responses)Exercise54.3 (21.1)55.3 (19.7)53.5 (20.3)0.07 [− 0.41, 0.55]0.64, p > 0.050.13 [− 0.35, 0.61]1.35, p > 0.05
Control50.9 (22.5)50.5 (22.0)47.4 (20.1)
STROOP color (no. of correct responses)Exercise41.3 (14.8)43.9 (17.0)43.3 (16.3)0.17 [− 0.31, 0.65]1.93, p > 0.050.03 [− 0.45, 0.51]0.47, p > 0.05
Control36.4 (17.6)36.3 (18.0)38.0 (15.4)
STROOP color-word (no. of correct responses)Exercise17.6 (10.4)16.5 (10.8)17.2 (10.7)− 0.24 [− 0.72, 0.24]0.45, p > 0.05− 0.37 [− 0.85, 0.12]0.61, p > 0.05
Control13.5 (9.05)14.9 (8.63)16.8 (8.83)
STROOP interference quotientExercise3.46 (3.18)4.04 (3.68)3.56 (2.81)− 0.49 [− 0.98, 0.00]4.29, p = 0.04*− 0.42 [− 0.90, 0.07]2.13, p > 0.05
Control4.19 (3.99)3.14 (2.21)3.00 (2.21)
DSFW (no. of correct responses)Exercise6.79 (1.77)7.11 (2.14)6.67 (1.80)0.15 [− 0.33, 0.63]0.96, p > 0.05− 0.13 [− 0.61, 0.35]0.40, p > 0.05
Control6.53 (1.55)6.58 (1.67)6.64 (1.91)
DSBW (no. of correct responses)Exercise4.00 (1.39)4.00 (1.54)4.01 (1.31)− 0.03 [− 0.51, 0.45]0.20, p > 0.050.10 [− 0.38, 0.58]0.15, p > 0.05
Control4.17 (1.32)4.21 (1.48)4.04 (1.60)
VMSFW (no. of correct responses)Exercise5.78 (1.95)5.50 (1.57)5.23 (1.50)0.04 [− 0.43, 0.52]2.01, p > 0.05− 0.05 [− 0.53, 0.43]1.20, p > 0.05
Control4.96 (1.80)4.60 (1.82)4.50 (2.05)
VMSBW (no. of correct responses)Exercise4.31 (2.05)4.23 (1.93)4.56 (1.71)0.14 [− 0.34, 0.62]0.71, p > 0.050.33 [− 0.16, 0.81]2.92, p > 0.05
Control4.30 (1.86)3.94 (1.94)3.93 (1.98)
Fluency (no. of correct responses)Exercise18.9 (7.73)18.3 (8.27)21.6 (8.49)− 0.06 [− 0.54, 0.42]0.03, p > 0.050.13 [− 0.35, 0.61]2.00, p > 0.05
Control14.7 (9.39)14.6 (9.95)16.3 (9.52)
  1. Values are mean (SD). N total = 69; N = 39 exercise vs. N = 30 control. Baseline-12 weeks is the low-intensity phase; baseline-24 weeks is the full study period (low-intensity and high-intensity phase). aMMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, TMTA Trail Making Test A, DSFW Digit Span Forward, DSBW Digit Span Backward, VMSFW Visual Memory Span Forward, VMSBW Visual Memory Span Backward, Fluency phonemic fluency test. bCohen’s d with 95% CI, positive effect sizes are in favor of exercise group. dANCOVA with baseline as a covariate, the main effect of group (exercise vs. control). *Significant at p < 0.05