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Table 3 Descriptives, effect sizes, and results of ANCOVA for cognitive test scores

From: Effects of low- and high-intensity physical exercise on physical and cognitive function in older persons with dementia: a randomized controlled trial

Testa Group Baseline 12 weeks 24 weeks Effect sizeb, baseline-12 weeks F(1, 66)d, p Effect sizeb, baseline-24 weeks F(1, 66)d, p
MMSE (score) Exercise 21.4 (3.94) 21.0 (4.38) 20.4 (4.77) − 0.05 [− 0.53, 0.43] 0.11, p > 0.05 − 0.04 [− 0.52, 0.44] 0.04, p > 0.05
Control 19.5 (4.77) 19.4 (5.64) 18.8 (5.88)
TMTA (s) Exercise 121 (64.2) 123 (63.7) 126 (65.3) − 0.03 [− 0.51, 0.45] 0.51, p > 0.05 − 0.14 [− 0.62, 0.34] 0.52, p > 0.05
Control 156 (65.2) 156 (61.1) 153 (56.6)
STROOP word (no. of correct responses) Exercise 54.3 (21.1) 55.3 (19.7) 53.5 (20.3) 0.07 [− 0.41, 0.55] 0.64, p > 0.05 0.13 [− 0.35, 0.61] 1.35, p > 0.05
Control 50.9 (22.5) 50.5 (22.0) 47.4 (20.1)
STROOP color (no. of correct responses) Exercise 41.3 (14.8) 43.9 (17.0) 43.3 (16.3) 0.17 [− 0.31, 0.65] 1.93, p > 0.05 0.03 [− 0.45, 0.51] 0.47, p > 0.05
Control 36.4 (17.6) 36.3 (18.0) 38.0 (15.4)
STROOP color-word (no. of correct responses) Exercise 17.6 (10.4) 16.5 (10.8) 17.2 (10.7) − 0.24 [− 0.72, 0.24] 0.45, p > 0.05 − 0.37 [− 0.85, 0.12] 0.61, p > 0.05
Control 13.5 (9.05) 14.9 (8.63) 16.8 (8.83)
STROOP interference quotient Exercise 3.46 (3.18) 4.04 (3.68) 3.56 (2.81) − 0.49 [− 0.98, 0.00] 4.29, p = 0.04* − 0.42 [− 0.90, 0.07] 2.13, p > 0.05
Control 4.19 (3.99) 3.14 (2.21) 3.00 (2.21)
DSFW (no. of correct responses) Exercise 6.79 (1.77) 7.11 (2.14) 6.67 (1.80) 0.15 [− 0.33, 0.63] 0.96, p > 0.05 − 0.13 [− 0.61, 0.35] 0.40, p > 0.05
Control 6.53 (1.55) 6.58 (1.67) 6.64 (1.91)
DSBW (no. of correct responses) Exercise 4.00 (1.39) 4.00 (1.54) 4.01 (1.31) − 0.03 [− 0.51, 0.45] 0.20, p > 0.05 0.10 [− 0.38, 0.58] 0.15, p > 0.05
Control 4.17 (1.32) 4.21 (1.48) 4.04 (1.60)
VMSFW (no. of correct responses) Exercise 5.78 (1.95) 5.50 (1.57) 5.23 (1.50) 0.04 [− 0.43, 0.52] 2.01, p > 0.05 − 0.05 [− 0.53, 0.43] 1.20, p > 0.05
Control 4.96 (1.80) 4.60 (1.82) 4.50 (2.05)
VMSBW (no. of correct responses) Exercise 4.31 (2.05) 4.23 (1.93) 4.56 (1.71) 0.14 [− 0.34, 0.62] 0.71, p > 0.05 0.33 [− 0.16, 0.81] 2.92, p > 0.05
Control 4.30 (1.86) 3.94 (1.94) 3.93 (1.98)
Fluency (no. of correct responses) Exercise 18.9 (7.73) 18.3 (8.27) 21.6 (8.49) − 0.06 [− 0.54, 0.42] 0.03, p > 0.05 0.13 [− 0.35, 0.61] 2.00, p > 0.05
Control 14.7 (9.39) 14.6 (9.95) 16.3 (9.52)
  1. Values are mean (SD). N total = 69; N = 39 exercise vs. N = 30 control. Baseline-12 weeks is the low-intensity phase; baseline-24 weeks is the full study period (low-intensity and high-intensity phase). aMMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, TMTA Trail Making Test A, DSFW Digit Span Forward, DSBW Digit Span Backward, VMSFW Visual Memory Span Forward, VMSBW Visual Memory Span Backward, Fluency phonemic fluency test. bCohen’s d with 95% CI, positive effect sizes are in favor of exercise group. dANCOVA with baseline as a covariate, the main effect of group (exercise vs. control). *Significant at p < 0.05