# Table 3 Descriptives, effect sizes, and results of ANCOVA for cognitive test scores

Testa

Group

Baseline

12â€‰weeks

24â€‰weeks

Effect sizeb, baseline-12â€‰weeks

F(1, 66)d, p

Effect sizeb, baseline-24â€‰weeks

F(1, 66)d, p

MMSE (score)

Exercise

21.4 (3.94)

21.0 (4.38)

20.4 (4.77)

âˆ’â€‰0.05 [âˆ’â€‰0.53, 0.43]

0.11, pâ€‰>â€‰0.05

âˆ’â€‰0.04 [âˆ’â€‰0.52, 0.44]

0.04, pâ€‰>â€‰0.05

Control

19.5 (4.77)

19.4 (5.64)

18.8 (5.88)

TMTA (s)

Exercise

121 (64.2)

123 (63.7)

126 (65.3)

âˆ’â€‰0.03 [âˆ’â€‰0.51, 0.45]

0.51, pâ€‰>â€‰0.05

âˆ’â€‰0.14 [âˆ’â€‰0.62, 0.34]

0.52, pâ€‰>â€‰0.05

Control

156 (65.2)

156 (61.1)

153 (56.6)

STROOP word (no. of correct responses)

Exercise

54.3 (21.1)

55.3 (19.7)

53.5 (20.3)

0.07 [âˆ’â€‰0.41, 0.55]

0.64, pâ€‰>â€‰0.05

0.13 [âˆ’â€‰0.35, 0.61]

1.35, pâ€‰>â€‰0.05

Control

50.9 (22.5)

50.5 (22.0)

47.4 (20.1)

STROOP color (no. of correct responses)

Exercise

41.3 (14.8)

43.9 (17.0)

43.3 (16.3)

0.17 [âˆ’â€‰0.31, 0.65]

1.93, pâ€‰>â€‰0.05

0.03 [âˆ’â€‰0.45, 0.51]

0.47, pâ€‰>â€‰0.05

Control

36.4 (17.6)

36.3 (18.0)

38.0 (15.4)

STROOP color-word (no. of correct responses)

Exercise

17.6 (10.4)

16.5 (10.8)

17.2 (10.7)

âˆ’â€‰0.24 [âˆ’â€‰0.72, 0.24]

0.45, pâ€‰>â€‰0.05

âˆ’â€‰0.37 [âˆ’â€‰0.85, 0.12]

0.61, pâ€‰>â€‰0.05

Control

13.5 (9.05)

14.9 (8.63)

16.8 (8.83)

STROOP interference quotient

Exercise

3.46 (3.18)

4.04 (3.68)

3.56 (2.81)

âˆ’â€‰0.49 [âˆ’â€‰0.98, 0.00]

4.29, pâ€‰=â€‰0.04*

âˆ’â€‰0.42 [âˆ’â€‰0.90, 0.07]

2.13, pâ€‰>â€‰0.05

Control

4.19 (3.99)

3.14 (2.21)

3.00 (2.21)

DSFW (no. of correct responses)

Exercise

6.79 (1.77)

7.11 (2.14)

6.67 (1.80)

0.15 [âˆ’â€‰0.33, 0.63]

0.96, pâ€‰>â€‰0.05

âˆ’â€‰0.13 [âˆ’â€‰0.61, 0.35]

0.40, pâ€‰>â€‰0.05

Control

6.53 (1.55)

6.58 (1.67)

6.64 (1.91)

DSBW (no. of correct responses)

Exercise

4.00 (1.39)

4.00 (1.54)

4.01 (1.31)

âˆ’â€‰0.03 [âˆ’â€‰0.51, 0.45]

0.20, pâ€‰>â€‰0.05

0.10 [âˆ’â€‰0.38, 0.58]

0.15, pâ€‰>â€‰0.05

Control

4.17 (1.32)

4.21 (1.48)

4.04 (1.60)

VMSFW (no. of correct responses)

Exercise

5.78 (1.95)

5.50 (1.57)

5.23 (1.50)

0.04 [âˆ’â€‰0.43, 0.52]

2.01, pâ€‰>â€‰0.05

âˆ’â€‰0.05 [âˆ’â€‰0.53, 0.43]

1.20, pâ€‰>â€‰0.05

Control

4.96 (1.80)

4.60 (1.82)

4.50 (2.05)

VMSBW (no. of correct responses)

Exercise

4.31 (2.05)

4.23 (1.93)

4.56 (1.71)

0.14 [âˆ’â€‰0.34, 0.62]

0.71, pâ€‰>â€‰0.05

0.33 [âˆ’â€‰0.16, 0.81]

2.92, pâ€‰>â€‰0.05

Control

4.30 (1.86)

3.94 (1.94)

3.93 (1.98)

Fluency (no. of correct responses)

Exercise

18.9 (7.73)

18.3 (8.27)

21.6 (8.49)

âˆ’â€‰0.06 [âˆ’â€‰0.54, 0.42]

0.03, pâ€‰>â€‰0.05

0.13 [âˆ’â€‰0.35, 0.61]

2.00, pâ€‰>â€‰0.05

Control

14.7 (9.39)

14.6 (9.95)

16.3 (9.52)

1. Values are mean (SD). N totalâ€‰=â€‰69; Nâ€‰=â€‰39 exercise vs. Nâ€‰=â€‰30 control. Baseline-12â€‰weeks is the low-intensity phase; baseline-24â€‰weeks is the full study period (low-intensity and high-intensity phase). aMMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, TMTA Trail Making Test A, DSFW Digit Span Forward, DSBW Digit Span Backward, VMSFW Visual Memory Span Forward, VMSBW Visual Memory Span Backward, Fluency phonemic fluency test. bCohenâ€™s d with 95% CI, positive effect sizes are in favor of exercise group. dANCOVA with baseline as a covariate, the main effect of group (exercise vs. control). *Significant at pâ€‰<â€‰0.05