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Table 1 Sample characteristics at baseline

From: Effects of low- and high-intensity physical exercise on physical and cognitive function in older persons with dementia: a randomized controlled trial

CharacteristicExercise (N = 39)Control (N = 30)
Age (mean, SD)81.7 (7.16)82.1 (7.51)
Gender (N women, % total)21 (53.8)22 (73.3)†i
Level of education (N, % total)
 1 = primary education only10 (25.6)8 (26.7)
 2 = secondary lower education25 (64.1)19 (63.3)
 3 = secondary higher education4 (10.3)3 (10.0)
Use of walking aid at baseline (N, % total)17 (43.6)19 (63.3)
Dementia diagnosis according to medical filea (N, % total)
 1 = Alzheimer’s disease (AD)14 (35.9)7 (23.3)
 2 = vascular dementia (VD)3 (7.7)1 (3.3)
 3 = mixed (AD+VD)3 (7.7)5 (16.7)
 4 = dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB)0 (0.0)1 (3.3)
 5 = others/unspecifiedb11 (28.2)12 (40.0)
MMSEc (mean, SD)21.4 (3.94)19.5 (4.77)†j
APOEd genotype (N, % total)
 Carrier (e3/e4 and e4/e4)18 (46.2)12 (40.0)
 Non-carrier (e2/e2, e2/e3, e3/e3)21 (53.8)18 (60.0)
Number of medications usede (mean, SD)5.2 (2.45)5.1 (2.74)
Use of beta blockers (N, % total)21 (53.8)14 (46.7)
DBIf (mean, SD)0.24 (0.38)0.22 (0.31)
FCIg (mean, SD)2.4 (1.66)2.7 (1.96)
BMIh (mean, SD)27.3 (3.53)27.6 (3.71)
  1. aN = 12 missing; bdiagnosis of “dementia” or “dementia syndrome”; cMini-Mental State Examination; dapolipoprotein E, within the carrier group N = 2 homozygote in exercise group, N = 1 homozygote in the control group; eN = 1 missing; fDrug Burden Index, N = 4 missing; gFunctional Comorbidity Index, N = 9 missing; hbody mass index. Significant at p < 0.01. iχ (1) = 2.74, p = 0.098; jF(1, 67) = 3.03, p = 0.086