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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population, by outcome (progression to any dementia)

From: Progression to dementia in memory clinic patients with mild cognitive impairment and normal β-amyloid

Characteristics Data available All (N = 318) Progression to dementia (N = 121) No progression to dementia (N = 197) P value
Demographics
 Age, years 318 64.8 (9.1) 67.9 (8.3) 63.0 (9.1) < 0.001
 Female 318 174 (54.7%) 64 (52.9%) 110 (55.8%) 0.61
 Education, years 293 11.7 (3.7) 11.7 (3.5) 11.7 (3.9) 0.97
 Follow-up time, years 318 2.8 (1.9) 2.9 (1.9) 2.8 (1.9) 0.83
Cognition
 MMSE score 315 27.1 (2.5) 27.0 (2.3) 27.1 (2.7) 0.72
 RAVLT, immediate recall score 215 34.6 (9.8) 30.6 (8.4) 37.5 (9.7) < 0.001
 RAVLT, delayed recall score 235 5.6 (3.3) 4.2 (2.9) 6.5 (3.3) < 0.001
Biomarkers
 CSF Aβ42, pg/ml 318 849.1 (293.6) 703.7 (222.5) 938.5 (296.7) < 0.001
 CSF t-tau, pg/ml 317 335.5 (184.9) 418.0 (193.5) 284.5 (159.7) < 0.001
 CSF p-tau, pg/ml 317 58.0 (25.1) 65.7 (22.8) 53.3 (25.4) < 0.001
 Abnormal t-tau (≥ 400 pg/ml) 317 92 (29.0%) 55 (45.5%) 37 (18.9%) < 0.001
 Abnormal p-tau (≥ 80 pg/ml) 317 60 (18.9%) 31 (25.6%) 29 (14.8%) 0.02
 CSF Aβ42/t-tau ratio 317 3.4 (2.0) 2.2 (1.4) 4.1 (2.0) < 0.001
 CSF Aβ42/p-tau ratio 317 18.0 (10.4) 12.5 (6.9) 21.4 (10.7) < 0.001
 MTA score 237 1.1 (0.8) 1.3 (0.7) 1.0 (0.8) 0.001
 MTA score > 1 237 84 (35.4%) 45 (46.9%) 39 (27.7%) 0.002
Vascular factors
 Systolic BP, mmHg 245 143.5 (19.2) 148.4 (21.7) 140.6 (17.1) 0.002
 Diastolic BP, mmHg 245 83.4 (10.5) 84.7 (10.5) 82.6 (10.5) 0.13
 BMI, kg/m2 205 26.0 (4.0) 25.5 (4.0) 26.3 (4.0) 0.23
 Current smoking 287 41 (14.3%) 15 (13.5%) 26 (14.8%) 0.77
 Hypertension 318 130 (40.9%) 54 (44.6%) 76 (38.6%) 0.29
 Hyperlipidemia 318 93 (29.3%) 40 (33.1%) 53 (26.9%) 0.24
 Diabetes 318 53 (16.7%) 20 (16.5%) 33 (16.8%) 0.96
 CAIDE risk score 174 7.5 (2.5) 7.9 (2.1) 7.4 (2.6) 0.18
 CAIDE risk score with APOE 91 9.4 (2.4) 9.8 (2.4) 9.2 (2.4) 0.22
Other factors
APOE ε4 carrier 171 86 (50.3%) 44 (65.7%) 42 (40.4%) 0.001
 Family history of dementia 306 119 (38.9%) 47 (39.8%) 72 (38.3%) 0.79
 Cornell score 248 6.1 (4.7) 5.2 (4.2) 6.6 (4.9) 0.02
  1. Data are mean (SD) or N (%). P values are shown for comparisons between patients who developed/did not develop dementia. P values < 0.05 are italicized. Hypertension and hyperlipidemia were defined as diagnosis of hypertension/hyperlipidemia and treatment with any antihypertensive/lipid-lowering drug. Family history of dementia included at least one affected first-degree relative. APOE apolipoprotein E, Aβ42 β-amyloid 1–42, BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, CAIDE Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia Study, CSF Cerebrospinal fluid, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, MTA medial temporal lobe atrophy, visual rating, RAVLT Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, p-tau tau phosphorylated at threonine 181, t-tau total tau