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Table 1 Soluble TNF neutralization reverts increased insulin plasma levels in presence of diet-induced metabolic inflammation

From: Targeting soluble tumor necrosis factor as a potential intervention to lower risk for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes

  CD Saline CD XPro HFHC Saline HFHC XPro
Insulin (ng/mL) 0.91 ± 0.13 a 1.89 ± 0.38 a 6.97 ± 1.63 b 2.76 ± 0.62 a
Leptin (ng/mL) 4.80 ± 0.64 a 6.90 ± 1.32 a 84.46 ± 24.84 b 67.45 ± 16.10 b
Cholesterol (mg/dL) 88.88 ± 22.79 a 79.00 ± 5.23 a 234.80 ± 35.87 b 183.81 ± 24.91 b
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 38.53 ± 7.41 ab 57.35 ± 6.70 a 31.49 ± 4.65 b 29.77 ± 2.77 b
IL-6 (pg/mL) 1.80 ± 0.57 a 1.94 ± 0.41 a 7.82 ± 1.48 b 5.22 ± 0.93 ab
Lcn2 (ug/mL) 56.01 ± 7.03 ac 39.11 ± 2.53 a 80.92 ± 6.75 b 72.18 ± 6.36 bc
  1. *Values are presented as an average with standard deviation. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s multiple comparisons in GraphPad Prism 6. Letters indicate post hoc analysis. Means with different letters are significantly different from each other, P < 0.05. ELISA measurement of fasting plasma collected at endpoint. Insulin (n = 10, diet effect P = 0.0005, XPro effect P = 0.007), leptin (n = 10, diet effect P < 0.0001), cholesterol (n = 5–6, diet effect P < 0.0001), triglycerides (n = 5–7, P = 0.0057), IL-6 (n = 10, diet effect P = 0.0001), and LCN2 (n = 10, diet effect P < 0.0001, XPro effect P = 0.0397)