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Table 1 Demographic characteristics and proposed and established biomarker data for PCA, tAD and control groups

From: Retinal thickness as potential biomarker in posterior cortical atrophy and typical Alzheimer’s disease

Demographics Posterior cortical atrophy Typical Alzheimer’s disease Controls p value  
Number 25 23 70   
Sex (m/f) 11/14 14/9 29/41 0.26a  
Age 67.0 (±7.1) 64.5 (±6.8) 66.3 (±7.7) 0.47b  
MMSE 22.1 (±5.4) 19.8 (±5.6) 29.5 (±0.8) < 0.001 c  
Biomarkers Posterior cortical atrophy Typical Alzheimer’s disease Controls Linear regression modelsc
PCA tAD
Beta p value Beta p value
OCT1 Mean peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (pRNFL) (μm) 98.8 (±12.2) 99.9 (±8.7) 99.6 (±10.0) − 0.02 0.80 − 0.01 0.89
Mean macular retinal thickness (mRT) (μm) 266.9 (±16.3) 267.8 (±13.6) 269.3 (±13.6) − 0.07 0.50 − 0.09 0.38
MRI subset2 AD Signature Thickness (mm) 2.5 (±0.2) 2.5 (±0.2) 2.8 (±0.1) − 0.73 < 0.001 − 0.60 < 0.001
Hippocampus volume (mm3) 6631.4 (±713.9) 6411.6 (±1072.1) 7847.8 (±873.5) − 0.44 < 0.001 −0.61 < 0.001
PCA signature thickness (mm) 1.7 (±0.2) 1.9 (±0.1) 2.1 (±0.1) − 0.78 < 0.001 − 0.35 < 0.001
Estimated intracranial volume (*106 mm3) 1.5 (±0.1) 1.5 (±0.2) 1.5 (±0.2) −0.14 0.21 −0.15 0.17
CSF subset3 -1-42 (ng/L) 395.9 (±140.1) 300.1 (±133.2) 900.9 (±221.9) − 0.70 < 0.001 − 0.90 < 0.001
Tau−181 (ng/L) 573.4 (±306.4) 778.2 (±359.1) 265.1 (±119.2) 0.32 0.07 0.65 < 0.001
Tau−181/Aβ1–42 ratio 1.6 (±1.0) 3.1 (±1.8) 0.3 (±0.1) 0.22 0.18 0.68 < 0.001
  1. Overall cohort characteristics, and proposed OCT and established biomarkers (MRI, CSF) for posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), typical Alzheimer’s disease (tAD) and control groups including between-group comparisons. MRI and CSF data were available in subset cohorts
  2. 1OCT-imaging was available in 25 PCA cases, 23 tAD cases and 70 controls for pRNFL peripapillary ring scans and in 23 PCA cases, 22 tAD cases and 66 controls for macular scans. 2MRI was available in 18 PCA cases, 17 tAD cases and 31 controls. 3CSF was available in 14 PCA cases, 18 tAD cases and 12 controls
  3. aChi-square test, bone-way ANOVA, cLinear regression models assessing relationships between biomarkers (dependent) and diagnosis (independent) with controls as reference group, corrected for age, sex (and estimated intracranial volume (eTIV) for hippocampal volume). Reported betas are standardized betas. Significant results are indicated in italics.