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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population

From: The quest for synergy between physical exercise and cognitive stimulation via exergaming in people with dementia: a randomized controlled trial

Variable Exergame group (n = 38) Aerobic group (n = 38) Control group (n = 39)
Age (years), mean (SD) 79.0 (6.9) 80.9 (6.1) 79.8 (6.5)
Men, n (%) 20 (52.6) 21 (55.3) 21 (53.8)
Educational level, n (%)
 Primary school education or lower 6 (15.8) 7 (18.4) 6 (15.4)
 Secondary education or vocational training 23 (60.5) 22 (57.9) 22 (56.4)
 Higher education 9 (23.7) 9 (23.7) 11 (28.2)
Mini Mental State Examination,a mean (SD) 22.9 (3.4) 22.5 (3.1) 21.9 (3.1)
Aetiology of dementia, n (%)
 Alzheimer’s disease 22 (57.9) 16 (42.1) 21 (53.8)
 Vascular dementia 4 (10.5) 4 (10.5) 3 (7.7)
 Mixed dementia (Alzheimer/vascular) 5 (13.2) 8 (21.1) 11 (28.2)
 Not specified 7 (18.4) 10 (26.3) 4 (10.3)
APOE carrier state, n (%)
 ε4/ε4 1 (2.7) 5 (13.2) 3 (7.9)
 ε3/ε4 20 (54.1) 13 (34.2) 16 (42.1)
 ε3/ε3 15 (40.5) 16 (42.1) 16 (42.1)
 ε3/ε2 0 3 (7.9) 4 (7.9)
 ε2/ε4 1 (2.7) 1 (2.6) 0
 ε2/ε2 0 0 0
Duration since dementia diagnosis (months), mean (SD) 13.6 (19.9) 13.8 (12.3) 18.9 (22.4)
Functional Comorbidity Index,b mean (SD) 2.5 (1.9) 2.4 (1.8) 2.2 (1.4)
Katz index,c mean (SD) 5.2 (3.3) 4.5 (3.0) 5.1 (2.9)
Number of medications used, mean (SD) 4.9 (2.9) 5.9 (3.8) 6.1 (3.7)
Use of beta-blockers, n (%) 16 (42.1) 17 (44.7) 14 (35.9)
Dementia drugs, n (%)
 Rivastigmine 6 (15.8) 4 (10.5) 8 (20.5)
 Donezepil 0 0 0
 Galantamine 1 (2.6) 3 (7.9) 2 (5.1)
 Memantine 0 1 (2.6) 0
  1. SD standard deviation
  2. aScores on the Mini-Mental State Examination range from 0 (severe impairment) to 30 (no impairment)
  3. bTheoretical range 0–18, higher score indicates more co-morbidities
  4. cTheoretical range 0–15, higher score indicates higher dependency in activities of daily living