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Table 1 Participant characteristics

From: The gut microbiota-derived metabolite trimethylamine N-oxide is elevated in Alzheimer’s disease

Sample characteristic All Control MCI AD dementia
N 410 335 35 40
Age (years) 63.8 ± 9.0 61.9 ± 7.9 73.2 ± 8.5 71.9 ± 8.6
Sex (% female) 63 (258/410) 69 (231/335) 31 (11/35) 40 (16/40)
APOE ε4 genotype, % positive (n) 43 (178/410) 39 (130/335) 54 (19/35) 73 (29/40)
AD parental history, % positive (n) 58 (236/410) 64 (214/335) 31 (11/35) 28 (11/40)
Ethnicity, % Caucasian (n) 97 (396/410) 96 (321/335) 100 (35/35) 100 (40/40)
Education (years) 15.9 ± 2.6 16.1 ± 2.5 16.3 ± 2.7 14.7 ± 2.8
Body mass index (BMI) 28.3 ± 5.5 28.5 ± 5.7 28.2 ± 4.4 26.6 ± 3.9
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 128 ± 17 125 ± 16 130 ± 18 134 ± 16
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 74 ± 9 75 ± 9 76 ± 10 75 ± 9
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 195 ± 37 199 ± 46 184 ± 44 190 ± 37
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 62 ± 18 64 ± 39 57 ± 19 56 ± 14
Fasting glucose (mg/dl) 97 ± 20 99 ± 51 99 ± 15 100 ± 18
CSF data
 TMAO (SIU) 1.5 ± 1.7 1.3 ± 1.5 2.1 ± 1.4 2.8 ± 2.9
 p-tau (pg/ml) 49.3 ± 22.0 45.1 ± 16.4 61.3 ± 36.2 74.7 ± 26.9
 p-tau/Aβ42 0.09 ± 0.07 0.07 ± 0.04 0.14 ± 0.11 0.21 + 0.09
 Aβ42/Aβ40 0.086 ± 0.024 0.090 ± 0.022 0.076 ± 0.028 0.062 ± 0.022
 t-tau (pg/ml) 370 ± 228 310 ± 141 552 ± 338 722 ± 300
 NFL (pg/ml) 841 ± 655 705 ± 489 1247 ± 863 1628 ± 935
 Neurogranin (pg/ml) 352 ± 208 328 ± 182 430 ± 308 488 ± 244
  1. All data presented as mean ± standard deviation unless otherwise indicated
  2. MCI mild cognitive impairment, AD Alzheimer’s disease, APOE ε4 apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele, HDL high-density lipoprotein, CSF cerebrospinal fluid, TMAO trimethylamine N-oxide, SIU scaled intensity units, p-tau phosphorylated tau, beta-amyloid, t-tau total tau, NFL neurofilament light chain protein