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Table 5 Normative data for subtests within domains: Working Memory/Attention/Executive Control

From: Correction to: The Toronto cognitive assessment (TorCA): normative data and validation to detect amnestic mild cognitive impairment

  Toronto Cognitive Assessment Working Memory/Attention/Executive Control Test Ratings
Percentile Rating Serial Subtractions 7 s Serial Subtractions 3 s Serial Subtractions Total Digit Span Forwards Digit Span Backwards Digit Span Total Trails A Time Trails A Score Trails B Time Trails B Score Trails Time Difference Alternating Sequences Similarities
Ages 50–89 years
 ≤ 5 Below normal < 9 < 11 < 21 < 5 < 4 < 10 > 67 < 24 > 163 < 22 > 107 < 2 < 7
 6–24 Borderline 9–10 11–12 21–23 5 4 10 67–47 163–107 22 107–63 7–8
 ≥ 25 Within normal limits > 10 > 12 > 23 > 5 > 4 > 10 < 47 24 < 107 > 22 < 63 2 > 8
Ages 50–59 years
 ≤ 5 Below normal < 9 < 11 < 21 < 5 < 4 < 10 > 67 < 24 > 163 < 22 > 107 < 2 < 7
 6–24 Borderline 9–10 11–12 21–23 5 4 10 67–47 163–107 22 107–63 7–8
 ≥ 25 Within normal limits > 10 > 12 > 23 > 5 > 4 > 10 < 47 24 < 107 > 22 < 63 2 > 8
Ages 60–69 years
 ≤ 5 Below normal < 10 < 11 < 21 < 5 < 4 < 9 > 59 < 24 > 146 < 24 > 100 < 2 < 9
 6–24 Borderline 10 11–12 21–23 5 4 9–10 59–43 146–91 100–53 9
 ≥ 25 Within normal limits > 10 > 12 > 23 > 5 > 4 > 10 < 43 24 < 91 24 < 53 2 > 9
Ages 70–79 years
 ≤ 5 Below normal < 9 < 11 < 20 < 5 < 4 < 10 > 86 < 24 > 196 < 23 > 137 0 < 8
 6–24 Borderline 9–11 11 20–23 5 4 10 86–49 196–111 23 137–65 1 8
 ≥ 25 Within normal limits > 11 > 11 > 23 > 5 > 4 > 10 < 49 24 < 111 24 < 65 2 > 8
Ages 80–89 years
 ≤ 5 Below normal < 9 < 11 < 22 < 5 < 4 < 9 > 73 < 24 > 198 < 21 > 159 0 < 7
 6–24 Borderline 9–10 11–12 22–23 5 4 9 73–53 198–120 21–22 159–85 1 7–8
 ≥ 25 Within normal limits > 10 > 12 > 23 > 5 > 4 > 9 < 53 24 < 120 > 22 < 85 2 > 8