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Table 2 Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of all-cause dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, and vascular dementia by quartiles of metabolic parameter variability measured as coefficient of variation

From: Variability in metabolic parameters and risk of dementia: a nationwide population-based study

  All-cause dementia Alzheimer’s disease Vascular dementia
Events (n) Incidence rate (per 1000 person-years) HR (95% CI) Events (n) Incidence rate (per 1000 person-years) HR (95% CI) Events (n) Incidence rate (per 1000 person-years) HR (95% CI)
Body mass index
 Q1 5818 1.50 1 (ref.) 4338 1.12 1 (ref.) 661 0.17 1 (ref.)
 Q2 6264 1.59 1.07 (1.03–1.11) 4694 1.19 1.07 (1.03–1.12) 691 0.18 1.04 (0.94–1.16)
 Q3 7443 1.90 1.13 (1.09–1.17) 5497 1.41 1.11 (1.06–1.15) 845 0.22 1.17 (1.06–1.30)
 Q4 13,376 3.49 1.41 (1.36–1.45) 9957 2.60 1.36 (1.31–1.41) 1432 0.37 1.51 (1.38–1.66)
P for trend   < 0.001    < 0.001    < 0.001
Systolic blood pressure
 Q1 7058 1.81 1 (ref.) 5208 1.34 1 (ref.) 795 0.20 1 (ref.)
 Q2 6586 1.71 1.02 (0.99–1.05) 4900 1.27 1.03 (0.99–1.07) 719 0.19 0.99 (0.89–1.09)
 Q3 7607 1.94 1.03 (1.00–1.07) 5647 1.44 1.04 (1.00–1.08) 890 0.23 1.08 (0.98–1.19)
 Q4 11,650 3.02 1.15 (1.12–1.18) 8731 2.26 1.15 (1.11–1.19) 1225 0.32 1.16 (1.06–1.27)
P for trend   < 0.001    < 0.001    < 0.001
Glucose
 Q1 7388 1.94 1 (ref.) 5449 1.43 1 (ref.) 821 0.22 1 (ref.)
 Q2 7483 1.93 1.04 (1.01–1.08) 5568 1.43 1.06 (1.02–1.10) 837 0.22 1.04 (0.94–1.14)
 Q3 8030 2.05 1.06 (1.03–1.09) 5983 1.53 1.07 (1.03–1.11) 914 0.23 1.08 (0.98–1.18)
 Q4 10,000 2.54 1.12 (1.08–1.15) 7486 1.90 1.13 (1.09–1.17) 1057 0.27 1.08 (0.99–1.19)
P for trend   < 0.001    < 0.001    0.076
Total cholesterol
 Q1 7468 1.94 1 (ref.) 5589 1.45 1 (ref.) 805 0.21 1 (ref.)
 Q2 7420 1.89 1.07 (1.03–1.10) 5477 1.40 1.05 (1.01–1.09) 832 0.21 1.09 (0.99–1.20)
 Q3 7835 2.00 1.09 (1.06–1.13) 5896 1.51 1.10 (1.06–1.14) 873 0.22 1.12 (1.02–1.23)
 Q4 10,178 2.64 1.21 (1.18–1.25) 7524 1.95 1.19 (1.15–1.24) 1119 0.29 1.26 (1.15–1.38)
P for trend   < 0.001    < 0.001    < 0.001
  1. Adjusted for age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, regular exercise, income, glucose, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and body mass index (model 2). Model 1 (adjusted for age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, regular exercise, and income) presented in Additional file 1: Table S2
  2. CI confidence interval, HR hazard ratio, Q1–Q4 quartiles 1 (lowest)–4 (highest), ref. reference
  3. Bold data are data with statistical significance