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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of subjects according to number of parameters with high variability measured as coefficient of variation

From: Variability in metabolic parameters and risk of dementia: a nationwide population-based study

Characteristic 0 parameters (n = 988,490) 1 parameter (n = 1,156,635) 2 parameters (n = 602,366) 3 parameters (n = 163,699) 4 parameters (n = 19,626)
Age (years) 53.9 ± 7.3 54.5 ± 7.8 55.4 ± 8.5 56.5 ± 9.2 57.7 ± 9.8
Sex (male) 526,920 (53.3) 578,516 (50.0) 291,666 (48.4) 79,928 (48.8) 9863 (50.3)
Height (cm) 162.9 ± 8.4 162.0 ± 8.4 161.3 ± 8.5 160.7 ± 8.5 160.4 ± 8.7
Weight (kg) 62.3 ± 9.8 61.3 ± 9.8 60.4 ± 9.9 59.5 ± 9.9 58.6 ± 10.0
Body mass index (kg/m2)
 Baseline 23.5 ± 2.6 23.5 ± 2.7 23.4 ± 2.8 23.3 ± 3.0 23.1 ± 3.1
 Mean 23.4 ± 2.6 23.3 ± 2.6 23.2 ± 2.7 23.0 ± 2.7 22.8 ± 2.8
 CV 2.02 ± 0.87 2.87 ± 1.95 3.82 ± 2.43 4.83 ± 2.68 5.82 ± 2.66
 SD 0.47 ± 0.21 0.67 ± 0.46 0.88 ± 0.58 1.11 ± 0.64 1.33 ± 0.65
 VIM 0.47 ± 0.20 0.66 ± 0.45 0.88 ± 0.56 1.11 ± 0.62 1.34 ± 0.61
Systolic BP (mmHg)
 Baseline 120.6 ± 11.3 120.9 ± 12.5 121.4 ± 13.5 121.9 ± 14.6 122.5 ± 15.8
 Mean 119.1 ± 9.8 119.0 ± 10.0 119.1 ± 10.2 119.4 ± 10.5 120.0 ± 11.0
 CV 5.45 ± 2.31 7.26 ± 3.81 8.92 ± 4.27 10.69 ± 4.16 12.81 ± 3.05
 SD 6.48 ± 2.79 8.61 ± 4.58 10.61 ± 5.20 12.78 ± 5.19 15.42 ± 4.16
 VIM 6.43 ± 2.73 8.57 ± 4.50 10.54 ± 5.06 12.65 ± 4.94 15.18 ± 3.69
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 75.8 ± 8.4 75.8 ± 8.7 75.9 ± 9.0 76.0 ± 9.4 76.2 ± 9.9
Fasting glucose (mg/dl)
 Baseline 94.3 ± 10.1 95.4 ± 12.8 96.6 ± 14.9 98.0 ± 16.7 99.5 ± 18.5
 Mean 92.3 ± 8.5 92.5 ± 9.2 93.0 ± 9.9 93.7 ± 10.6 94.8 ± 11.6
 CV 6.54 ± 2.83 9.20 ± 5.74 11.79 ± 6.81 14.47 ± 7.00 17.38 ± 6.28
 SD 6.02 ± 2.67 8.61 ± 6.06 11.16 ± 7.57 13.83 ± 8.31 16.81 ± 8.48
 VIM 5.89 ± 2.80 8.11 ± 4.79 10.23 ± 5.44 12.37 ± 5.34 14.62 ± 4.33
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)
 Baseline 197.0 ± 27.4 197.3 ± 29.1 197.5 ± 31.1 197.4 ± 33.4 196.5 ± 35.5
 Mean 192.5 ± 24.8 191.2 ± 24.9 189.9 ± 25.1 188.7 ± 25.5 187.1 ± 25.9
 CV 6.70 ± 2.75 8.94 ± 4.81 11.48 ± 5.66 14.12 ± 5.61 16.64 ± 4.65
 SD 12.88 ± 5.54 17.00 ± 9.31 21.69 ± 10.98 26.54 ± 11.05 31.05 ± 9.51
 VIM 12.49 ± 5.13 16.62 ± 8.93 21.33 ± 10.50 26.22 ± 10.39 30.86 ± 8.59
Log triglycerides 4.7 ± 0.5 4.6 ± 0.5 4.7 ± 0.5 4.7 ± 0.5 4.7 ± 0.5
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dl) 55.1 ± 17.9 55.4 ± 18.7 55.5 ± 19.2 55.6 ± 20.6 55.6 ± 21.8
LDL-cholesterol (mg/dl) 115.4 ± 35.3 114.0 ± 36.3 112.4 ± 37.5 110.3 ± 37.4 108.0 ± 41.8
Smoking
 None 627,703 (63.5) 750,500 (64.9) 393,231 (65.3) 105,325 (64.3) 12,331 (62.8)
 Ex-smoker 177,795 (18.0) 184,318 (15.9) 89,071 (14.8) 23,457 (14.3) 2844 (14.5)
 Current smoker 182,992 (18.5) 221,817 (19.2) 120,064 (19.9) 34,917 (21.3) 4451 (22.7)
Alcohol consumption
 None 562,435 (56.9) 687,756 (59.5) 367,873 (61.1) 101,334 (61.9) 12,340 (62.9)
 < 30 g/day 369,632 (37.4) 402,512 (34.8) 198,101 (32.9) 51,318 (31.3) 5820 (29.7)
 ≥ 30 g/day 56,423 (5.7) 66,367 (5.7) 36,392 (6.0) 11,047 (6.7) 1466 (7.5)
Regular exercise 223,139 (22.6) 249,901 (21.6) 124,580 (20.7) 32,385 (19.8) 3674 (18.7)
Income (lower 25%) 181,845 (18.4) 240,264 (20.8) 135,512 (22.5) 39,191 (23.9) 4816 (24.5)
Ischemic heart disease 12,698 (1.3) 16,630 (1.4) 9659 (1.6) 3083 (1.9) 393 (2.0)
Stroke 4093 (0.4) 5982 (0.5) 3764 (0.6) 1206 (0.7) 198 (1.0)
Depression 25,577 (2.6) 36,391 (3.1) 22,900 (3.8) 7352 (4.5) 1014 (5.2)
  1. Data expressed as mean ± standard deviation or n (%)
  2. P for trend values <  0.001 for all variables
  3. BP blood pressure, CV coefficient of variation, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, SD standard deviation, VIM variability independent of the mean