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Table 9 Regression-based normative data of cognitive performance stratified by age, gender, and education as appropriate

From: Patterns of cognitive function in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults—findings from the EMCOA study

   Education level
Elementary school Junior middle school Senior middle school College and above
Age Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female
MMSE 50–54 27.19 ± 0.47 26.74 ± 0.51 28.01 ± 0.00 27.67 ± 0.00 28.49 ± 0.00 28.38 ± 0.00 29.06 ± 0.08 29.21 ± 0.12
55–59 27.38 ± 0.35 26.66 ± 0.58 28.01 ± 0.00 27.67 ± 0.00 28.49 ± 0.00 28.38 ± 0.00 29.04 ± 0.08 29.21 ± 0.12
60–64 27.42 ± 0.30 26.76 ± 0.48 28.01 ± 0.00 27.67 ± 0.00 28.49 ± 0.00 28.38 ± 0.00 29.03 ± 0.08 29.19 ± 0.12
65–70 27.45 ± 0.26 26.72 ± 0.53 28.01 ± 0.00 27.67 ± 0.00 28.49 ± 0.00 28.38 ± 0.00 29.02 ± 0.07 29.20 ± 0.12
MoCA 50–54 22.91 ± 1.06 22.32 ± 1.04 24.75 ± 0.04 24.25 ± 0.08 25.81 ± 0.04 25.69 ± 0.08 27.10 ± 0.19 27.40 ± 0.25
55–59 23.18 ± 0.77 21.88 ± 1.18 24.58 ± 0.04 23.94 ± 0.08 25.67 ± 0.04 25.42 ± 0.09 26.89 ± 0.18 27.12 ± 0.27
60–64 23.12 ± 0.68 21.79 ± 1.00 24.43 ± 0.04 23.65 ± 0.09 25.53 ± 0.05 25.13 ± 0.09 26.74 ± 0.18 26.78 ± 0.24
65–70 23.05 ± 0.58 21.42 ± 1.07 24.29 ± 0.05 23.35 ± 0.10 25.37 ± 0.05 24.84 ± 0.09 26.54 ± 0.17 26.47 ± 0.27
AVLT-IR 50–54 12.54 ± 1.15 13.52 ± 1.07 14.53 ± 0.09 15.50 ± 0.08 15.67 ± 0.08 16.99 ± 0.08 17.08 ± 0.23 18.75 ± 0.26
55–59 12.63 ± 0.83 13.05 ± 1.21 14.16 ± 0.10 15.17 ± 0.10 15.36 ± 0.10 16.70 ± 0.10 16.67 ± 0.22 18.44 ± 0.29
60–64 12.28 ± 0.75 12.90 ± 1.03 13.79 ± 0.11 14.82 ± 0.11 15.02 ± 0.11 16.35 ± 0.11 16.33 ± 0.22 18.04 ± 0.25
65–70 12.09 ± 0.64 12.44 ± 1.10 13.43 ± 0.15 14.43 ± 0.13 14.61 ± 0.13 15.97 ± 0.12 15.87 ± 0.24 17.63 ± 0.28
AVLT-SR 50–54 4.25 ± 0.28 4.64 ± 0.33 4.91 ± 0.06 5.44 ± 0.06 5.45 ± 0.05 6.17 ± 0.05 6.28 ± 0.15 7.18 ± 0.16
55–59 4.11 ± 0.21 4.38 ± 0.38 4.66 ± 0.07 5.21 ± 0.07 5.24 ± 0.07 5.97 ± 0.07 6.01 ± 0.14 6.97 ± 0.18
60–64 3.91 ± 0.20 4.21 ± 0.33 4.42 ± 0.07 4.97 ± 0.07 5.02 ± 0.08 5.74 ± 0.07 5.78 ± 0.15 6.71 ± 0.15
65–70 3.68 ± 0.19 3.93 ± 0.34 4.17 ± 0.10 4.71 ± 0.09 4.74 ± 0.09 5.48 ± 0.08 5.47 ± 0.16 6.43 ± 0.19
AVLT-LR 50–54 3.57 ± 0.30 3.94 ± 0.34 4.27 ± 0.07 4.77 ± 0.06 4.86 ± 0.06 5.55 ± 0.06 5.78 ± 0.16 6.65 ± 0.18
55–59 3.39 ± 0.22 3.65 ± 0.38 3.99 ± 0.08 4.51 ± 0.08 4.62 ± 0.08 5.32 ± 0.08 5.47 ± 0.16 6.40 ± 0.20
60–64 3.15 ± 0.21 3.44 ± 0.33 3.70 ± 0.09 4.24 ± 0.08 4.36 ± 0.09 5.05 ± 0.08 5.21 ± 0.16 6.10 ± 0.17
65–70 2.89 ± 0.20 3.12 ± 0.35 3.42 ± 0.11 3.94 ± 0.10 4.04 ± 0.10 4.76 ± 0.10 4.85 ± 0.18 5.78 ± 0.21
SDMT 50–54 27.67 ± 3.34 26.70 ± 3.88 33.38 ± 0.46 33.95 ± 0.40 36.64 ± 0.39 39.35 ± 0.39 40.81 ± 0.76 45.76 ± 0.97
55–59 27.18 ± 2.43 24.68 ± 4.40 31.68 ± 0.44 32.38 ± 0.44 35.20 ± 0.46 37.96 ± 0.45 39.02 ± 0.74 44.27 ± 1.09
60–64 26.00 ± 2.22 23.91 ± 3.74 30.10 ± 0.46 30.88 ± 0.45 33.74 ± 0.47 36.46 ± 0.45 37.57 ± 0.73 42.62 ± 0.91
65–70 24.76 ± 1.92 22.11 ± 4.00 28.66 ± 0.56 29.34 ± 0.50 32.12 ± 0.49 34.95 ± 0.48 35.76 ± 0.80 40.98 ± 1.09
DSF 50–54 6.98 ± 0.36 7.12 ± 0.26 7.61 ± 0.02 7.60 ± 0.01 7.97 ± 0.02 7.97 ± 0.02 8.41 ± 0.07 8.40 ± 0.06
55–59 7.10 ± 0.25 7.06 ± 0.28 7.55 ± 0.01 7.55 ± 0.01 7.90 ± 0.02 7.90 ± 0.02 8.29 ± 0.06 8.31 ± 0.07
60–64 7.09 ± 0.21 7.08 ± 0.22 7.49 ± 0.02 7.50 ± 0.02 7.84 ± 0.02 7.84 ± 0.02 8.21 ± 0.06 8.21 ± 0.06
65–70 7.09 ± 0.17 7.03 ± 0.23 7.45 ± 0.02 7.45 ± 0.02 7.76 ± 0.02 7.77 ± 0.02 8.01 ± 0.06 8.12 ± 0.06
DSB 50–54 3.68 ± 0.14 3.46 ± 0.16 4.01 ± 0.03 3.85 ± 0.02 4.31 ± 0.02 4.23 ± 0.02 4.75 ± 0.08 4.76 ± 0.08
55–59 3.63 ± 0.10 3.35 ± 0.18 3.91 ± 0.03 3.76 ± 0.03 4.22 ± 0.03 4.15 ± 0.03 4.64 ± 0.07 4.67 ± 0.09
60–64 3.56 ± 0.10 3.29 ± 0.15 3.82 ± 0.03 3.67 ± 0.03 4.14 ± 0.03 4.06 ± 0.03 4.55 ± 0.07 4.57 ± 0.08
65–70 3.48 ± 0.08 3.19 ± 0.16 3.74 ± 0.03 3.58 ± 0.03 4.04 ± 0.03 3.97 ± 0.03 4.44 ± 0.07 4.48 ± 0.09
TMT-A 50–54 73.20 ± 5.61 86.91 ± 8.02 63.65 ± 1.79 71.67 ± 1.58 58.69 ± 1.51 60.69 ± 1.50 51.49 ± 1.99 47.32 ± 2.34
55–59 76.71 ± 4.03 92.67 ± 9.07 69.24 ± 1.18 76.81 ± 1.18 63.34 ± 1.26 65.24 ± 1.23 57.11 ± 1.58 52.26 ± 2.40
60–64 79.22 ± 3.63 93.31 ± 7.67 72.48 ± 0.69 79.99 ± 0.69 66.51 ± 0.73 68.55 ± 0.70 60.23 ± 1.18 55.86 ± 1.82
65–70 80.25 ± 2.98 96.41 ± 8.30 73.80 ± 0.18 81.52 ± 0.17 68.18 ± 0.16 70.20 ± 0.18 62.06 ± 0.87 57.45 ± 1.93
TMT-B 50–54 185.28 ± 13.15 208.77 ± 19.14 162.40 ± 1.37 172.83 ± 2.43 149.42 ± 1.17 146.31 ± 2.32 133.17 ± 2.74 114.61 ± 4.93
55–59 185.13 ± 9.54 220.24 ± 21.71 167.50 ± 1.31 182.26 ± 2.61 153.73 ± 1.38 154.64 ± 2.68 138.67 ± 2.64 123.53 ± 5.62
60–64 188.41 ± 8.62 225.69 ± 18.55 172.22 ± 1.37 191.23 ± 2.68 158.10 ± 1.39 163.61 ± 2.70 143.05 ± 2.63 133.24 ± 4.67
65–70 191.91 ± 7.39 236.12 ± 19.69 176.56 ± 1.69 200.48 ± 2.97 162.97 ± 1.47 172.66 ± 2.85 148.55 ± 2.74 143.10 ± 5.74
LMT-IR 50–54 8.26 ± 0.71 7.28 ± 0.97 9.99 ± 0.00 9.40 ± 0.00 11.56 ± 0.00 11.35 ± 0.00 13.83 ± 0.35 13.64 ± 0.00
55–59 8.56 ± 0.52 7.46 ± 0.79 9.99 ± 0.00 9.40 ± 0.00 11.56 ± 0.00 11.35 ± 0.00 13.73 ± 0.34 14.03 ± 0.42
60–64 8.61 ± 0.45 7.34 ± 0.89 9.99 ± 0.00 9.40 ± 0.00 11.56 ± 0.00 11.35 ± 0.00 13.70 ± 0.34 14.04 ± 0.42
65–70 8.66 ± 0.38 7.50 ± 0.75 9.99 ± 0.00 9.40 ± 0.00 11.56 ± 0.00 11.35 ± 0.00 13.64 ± 0.31 13.96 ± 0.41
SCWT-IT 50–54 35.18 ± 3.74 30.32 ± 3.10 38.31 ± 0.41 33.42 ± 0.32 36.47 ± 0.45 33.24 ± 0.41 31.26 ± 1.08 30.20 ± 0.74
55–59 37.66 ± 3.11 30.43 ± 3.79 39.89 ± 0.41 34.69 ± 0.36 38.16 ± 0.56 34.73 ± 0.49 33.65 ± 1.06 32.10 ± 0.88
60–64 38.78 ± 3.00 31.78 ± 3.45 41.40 ± 0.45 35.94 ± 0.38 39.96 ± 0.59 36.41 ± 0.52 35.67 ± 1.07 34.19 ± 0.74
65–70 39.97 ± 2.80 32.13 ± 4.07 42.85 ± 0.57 37.28 ± 0.44 42.07 ± 0.66 38.19 ± 0.58 38.37 ± 1.19 36.58 ± 1.00
  1. Predictors in final multivariate linear regression analysis were age, gender and level of education
  2. AVLT-IR Auditory Verbal Learning Test—immediate recall, AVLT-LR Auditory Verbal Learning Test—long recall, AVLT-SR Auditory Verbal Learning Test—short recall, DSB digit span backwards, DSF digit span forwards, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, MoCA Montreal Cognitive Assessment, SCWT-IT Stroop Color-Word Test Interference Trial, SDMT Symbol Digit Modalities Test, TMT Trail Making Test, LMT-IR Logical Memory Test—immediate recall