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Table 1 Demographics and clinical characteristics of patients and control subjects

From: Cerebrovascular disease influences functional and structural network connectivity in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

  HC (n = 65) aMCI (n = 39) aMCI+CeVD (n = 50) AD (n = 47) AD+CeVD (n = 47) p value
Age (years) 67.3 (6.2)b,c,d,e 71.8 (7.9)d 71.4 (8.7)d 75.2 (7.8) 79.3 (6.1) p < 0.001
Gender (M/F), n 29/36 22/17 29/21 17:30 15:32 p = 0.037
Handedness (R:L), n 60:5 37:2 50:0 47:0 47:0 p = 0.019
Ethnicity (C:M:I:O), n 60/2/3/0 34/1/4/0 38/8/2/2 38/6/1/2 34/9/4/0 p = 0.016
CDR global 0.1 (0.2) 0.4 (0.2) 0.4 (0.3) 1.1 (0.3) 1.3 (0.5) p < 0.001
CDR sum of boxes 0.1 (0.2)d,e 0.9 (0.7)d,e 0.9 (0.9)d,e 6.2 (2.2) 6.9 (2.9) p < 0.001
MMSE 27.4 (2.0)b,c,d,e 24.4 (3.5)d,e 23.6 (3.6)d,e 16.6 (5.2) 16.4 (4.4) p < 0.001
GDS 1.57 (2.11)e 1.74 (2.71) 2.52 (3.02) 2.40 (2.29) 3.21 (3.16) p = 0.015
WMH, cm3 1.97 (1.67)c,e 3.23 (3.11)c,e 14.53 (14.74)d 5.30 (4.84)e 18.11 (13.42) p < 0.001
  n = 57 n = 39 n = 49 n = 37 n = 34 Overall ANOVA
Executive 0.81 (0.40)b,c,d,e 0.27 (0.70)d,e 0.01 (0.71)d,e −0.93 (1.08) −1.07 (0.98) p < 0.001
Attention 0.63 (0.42)b,c,d,e 0.11 (0.56)d,e −0.005 (0.52)d,e −0.69 (0.91) −0.62 (0.67) p < 0.001
Language 0.81 (0.44)b,c,d,e 0.14 (0.55)d,e 0.03 (0.48)d,e −0.88 (0.86) −0.97 (0.70) p < 0.001
Verbal memory 0.092 (0.47)b,c,d,e −0.13 (0.64)d,e −0.13 (0.59)d,e −0.86 (0.51) −0.88 (0.30) p < 0.001
Visual memory 0.97 (0.37)b,c,d,e −0.12 (0.49)d,e −0.13 (0.39)d,e −0.92 (0.50) −0.90 (0.46) p < 0.001
Visuoconstruction 0.83 (0.37)b,c,d,e 0.21 (0.61)d,e −0.07 (0.65)d,e −0.79 (0.93) −0.91 (0.76) p < 0.001
Visuomotor 0.85 (0.47)b,c,d,e 0.18 (0.68)d,e −0.10 (0.68)d,e −0.85 (0.74) −0.89 (0.66) p < 0.001
  1. Out of the total 248 participants with imaging data, 246 participants had functional connectivity data and 247 had structural connectivity data. Out of the total 217 subjects with cognitive data, 215 had functional connectivity data and 216 had structural connectivity data
  2. Values represent mean (SD) unless otherwise indicated
  3. Superscript letters indicate whether group mean was significantly different compared with baMCI (B), caMCI with CeVD, dAlzheimer’s disease, and eAlzheimer’s disease with CeVD, based on post-hoc comparisons (p < 0.05) following one-way analysis of variance
  4. Chi-square tests were carried out on sex and CDR global, while Fisher’s exact test was carried out for handedness and ethnicity covariates
  5. AD Alzheimer’s disease, aMCI amnestic mild cognitive impairment, ANCOVA analysis of covariance, C Chinese, CeVD cerebrovascular disease, CDR Clinical Dementia Rating, F female, GDS Geriatric Depression Scale, HC healthy controls, I Indian, L left, M Malay, M male, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, O other, R right, WMH white matter hyperintensity