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Table 3 Biomarker levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of brothers A and B

From: Reduced penetrance of the PSEN1 H163Y autosomal dominant Alzheimer mutation: a 22-year follow-up study

   Amyloid-β42 (ng/L)
Analyzed in 2012
Amyloid-β42 (ng/L)
Analyzed in 2017
T-tau (ng/L) P-tau (ng/L)
1995 Brother A (age 44 yr) 321 453 156 37
Brother B (age 43 yr) 652 N.A. 136 26
2006 Brother A (age 55 yr) 730 421 704 82
Brother B (age 54 yr) 1914 1256 212 41
  1. Abbreviations: CSF Cerebrospinal fluid, N.A. Not available, P-tau Phosphorylated tau, T-tau Total tau
  2. Biomarker levels that fall outside the reference range are highlighted in bold. The normal values for these three biomarkers applied at the Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Mölndal, Sweden, were used as a reference. At the laboratory in Mölndal, the normal reference level for CSF amyloid-β42 is > 550 ng/L. The reference level for CSF T-tau is < 300 ng/L for individuals between 18 and 45 years of age and < 400 ng/L for those who are over 45 years old. CSF P-tau should be < 60 ng/L for those under 60 years of age and < 80 ng/L for those 60 years or older