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Table 1 Demographic information and biomarker data

From: Diagnostic value of cerebrospinal fluid tau, neurofilament, and progranulin in definite frontotemporal lobar degeneration

   FTLD subgroups   
     FTLD-TDP subgroups   
  FTLD FTLD-tau FTLD-TDP FTLD-C9orf72 FTLD-GRN Controls Alzheimer’s disease
Gender, % male/female (n) 50/50
(46)
70/30
(10)
44/56
(34)
37/63
(19)
56/44
(9)
55/45
(20)
49/51
(45)
Age at LP (years) 63.6
(55.1–71.7)a
70.3
(56.2–74.4)
63.3
(54.5–71.6)
59.0
(53.7–69.5)*
67.3
(63.3–71.9)
69.4
(61.5–74.7)
71.2
(66.7–79.2)
Age at onset (years) 62.0
(53.8–69.2)a
56.0
(54.0–71.0)
63.5
(52.8–69.2)
56.0
(48.0–67.0)
66.0
(61.5–70.0)
N/A 69.5
(64.3–75.8)
Age at death (years) 65.9
(60.2–75.1)
74.0
(60.8–76.2)
62.9
(57.5–72.5)
57.7
(52.3–62.6)*
69.1
(61.1–74.2)
N/A N/A
APOE ε4 carriers, % (n) 32.4
(37)
57.1
(7)
27.6
(29)
30.8
(13)
20.0
(10)
33.3
(6)
59.5
(42)
MMSE at LP (0–30), (n) 21 (15–25)
(29)
23 (22–27)
(5)
19 (14–25)
(23)
15 (7–21)
(10)
23 (16–26)
(7)
N/A 20 (15–25)
(42)
Serum progranulin (ng/mL) 95
(60–126)a,b
96
(76–167)*
95
(61–125)
107
(91–125)*
48
(39–63)
130
(101–175)
119
(98–145)
CSF progranulin (ng/mL) 3.39
(2.29–3.85)a
3.79
(2.94–4.23)*
3.00
(2.10–3.64)
3.21
(2.35–3.74)*
1.93
(0.97–2.43)
3.61
(2.92–4.50)
3.88
(3.22–4.59)
CSF Aβ1–42 (pg/mL) 641
(457–858)a
543
(438–960)
698
(481–862)
695
(457–819)
708
(578–943)
812
(646–1108)
509
(372–594)b
CSF t-tau (pg/mL) 320
(219–420)a
331
(197–400)
330
(236–464)
252
(178–332)*
379
(296–559)
257
(173–381)
627
(429–928)b
CSF p-tau181 (pg/mL) 36.7
(28.3–49.0)a
35.5
(26.9–58.8)
37.2
(28.8–49.0)
33.0
(22.0–49.0)
36.0
(30.9–42.5)
40.3
(32.9–58.6)
80.0
(60.5–105.0)b
CSF p-tau181/t-tau ratio 0.117
(0.097–0.149)b
0.144
(0.095–0.152)*
0.116
(0.092–0.145)
0.142
(0.105–0.164)*
0.088
(0.076–0.114)
0.176
(0.156–0.197)
0.132
(0.104–0.149)b
CSF Nf-L (pg/mL) 3967
(2556–7148)a,b
2508
(1217–6053)*
4323
(3367–7358)
3446
(2611–4049)*
7323
(5432–9097)
1136
(547–3984)
1597
(1281–2781)
CSF pNf-H (ng/mL) 0.43
(0.21–1.25)
0.54
(0.29–1.45)*
0.41
(0.16–0.95)
0.45
(0.22–0.95)*
0.04
(0.04–0.33)
0.33
(0.04–1.36)
0.47
(0.19–1.43)
  1. Values are presented as median (interquartile range) unless otherwise indicated
  2. Gender and MMSE were analyzed with a Chi-squared test
  3. Kruskal-Wallis test with post-hoc Dunn’s correction was used to compare (full) dementia groups and controls
  4. Significant differences (p < 0.05) are indicated: a compared to Alzheimer’s disease; b compared to controls
  5. Pairwise Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare FTLD subgroups
  6. Significant differences (p < 0.05) are indicated: * compared to FTLD-GRN; compared to FTLD-tau
  7. amyloid-beta, CSF cerebrospinal fluid, FTLD frontotemporal lobar degeneration, LP lumbar puncture, Nf-L neurofilament light chain, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, N/A not applicable, pNf-H phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain, p-tau 181 phosphorylated tau, t-tau total tau