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Table 2 Demographic, clinical, genetic and biomarker data of the MCI subgroups based on core CSF biomarkers

From: Addition of the Aβ42/40 ratio to the cerebrospinal fluid biomarker profile increases the predictive value for underlying Alzheimer’s disease dementia in mild cognitive impairment

  Low-AD likelihood High-AD likelihood IAP SNAP
N (%) 59 (29.9%) 62 (31.5%) 21 (10.6%) 55 (27.9%)
Gender (M/F) 17/42 26/36 8/13 17/38
Age (years) 62.7 ± 9.9 69.6 ± 7.7** 66.3 ± 9.7 69.4 ± 8.9**
Age onset (years) 59.0 ± 10.3 66.4 ± 7.8** 63.1 ± 8.1 67.4 ± 8.1**
Education (years) 6.5 ± 3.9 6.1 ± 4.1 5.1 ± 2.4 5.8 ± 4.1
MMSE 27.6 ± 2.6 24.3 ± 4.2*** 25.1 ± 6.0 26.3 ± 3.2
MoCA 20.5 ± 5.0 16.4 ± 5.5** 16.3 ± 6.9 17.3 ± 4.9
ADAS-Cog 8.5 ± 4.6 12.7 ± 4.3** 13.3 ± 7.5 13.5 ± 7.5*
APOE-ε4 (%) 26% 64%*** 24%γγγ 39%γγ
Aβ42 (pg/ml) 918 ± 243 405 ± 109*** 403 ± 123***,§§§ 867 ± 282γγγ
Aβ40 (pg/ml) 9608 ± 3219 10,945 ± 4191 8006 ± 3082γ,§§§ 14,247 ± 5219***,γγγ
Aβ42/40 ratio 0.105 ± 0.040 0.040 ± 0.017*** 0.066 ± 0.024*** 0.061 ± 0.037***,γγγ
t-Tau (pg/ml) 169 ± 42 545 ± 274*** 159 ± 67γγγ,§§§ 488 ± 250***
p-Tau (pg/ml) 30 ± 9 68 ± 28*** 28 ± 7γγγ,§§§ 61 ± 27***
Follow-up time (years) 4.0 ± 3.3 4.0 ± 2.5 4.2 ± 4.1 3.6 ± 2.7
  1. Data expressed as mean ± standard deviation, except for APOE expressed as percentage of ε4 carriers
  2. MCI mild cognitive impairment, AD Alzheimer’s disease, IAP isolated amyloid pathology, SNAP suspected non-Alzheimer pathology, M male, F female, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination, MoCA Montreal Cognitive Assessment, ADAS-Cog Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale—Cognitive, APOE Apolipoprotein E, Aβ42 42-aminoacid isoform of amyloid beta, Aβ40 40-aminoacid isoform of amyloid beta, t-Tau total Tau protein, p-Tau hyperphosphorylated Tau protein
  3. MMSE and MoCA, higher scores correspond to better performance; ADAS-Cog, lower scores correspond to better performance
  4. *p < 0.05 vs low-AD likelihood
  5. **p < 0.005 vs low-AD likelihood
  6. ***p < 0.001 vs low-AD likelihood
  7. γp < 0.05 vs high-AD likelihood
  8. γγp < 0.01 vs high-AD likelihood
  9. γγγp < 0.001 vs high-AD likelihood
  10. §§§p < 0.001 vs SNAP