Skip to main content

Table 3 Change from baseline in patient and caregiver outcomes at 18 months (propensity score-adjusted)

From: Representativeness of European clinical trial populations in mild Alzheimer’s disease dementia: a comparison of 18-month outcomes with real-world data from the GERAS observational study

Outcome LS mean (95% CI) change from baseline Difference (95% CI) ANCOVA p value for study type
EXPEDITION RCTs (EU population) GERAS observational study
ADAS-Cog14 score 6.73
(4.68, 8.79)
4.92
(3.49, 6.35)
1.81
(−0.30, 3.92)
0.09
ADCS-ADL basic score −1.80
(−2.54, −1.06)
−1.80
(−2.29, −1.30)
−0.00
(−0.76, 0.75)
0.99
ADCS-ADL instrumental score −7.42
(−9.45, −5.39)
−7.29
(−8.64, −5.94)
−0.13
(−2.22, 1.96)
0.90
EQ-5D UK population-based index score −0.036
(−0.087, 0.015)
−0.069
(−0.103, −0.034)
0.032
(−0.020, 0.085)
0.22
EQ-5D VAS score −0.60
(−4.41, 3.21)
−2.11
(−4.92, 0.70)
1.51
(−2.42, 5.44)
0.45
NPI-12 Caregiver Distress score 1.79
(0.51, 3.07)
1.90
(1.13, 2.68)
−0.11
(−1.49, 1.27)
0.90
  1. Poorer cognition is indicated by higher scores for ADAS-Cog14; poorer functioning is indicated by lower ADCS-ADL basic and instrumental scores; reduced HRQoL is indicated by lower EQ-5D scores; greater caregiver distress is indicated by higher NPI-12 Caregiver Distress scores
  2. ADAS-Cog14 14-item cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale, ADCS-ADL Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study Activities of Daily Living Inventory, ANCOVA analysis of covariance, CI confidence interval, EQ-5D EuroQoL-5-Dimensions questionnaire, EU European, LS least squares, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, NPI Neuropsychiatric Inventory, RCT randomised controlled trial, UK United Kingdom, VAS visual analogue scale