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Fig. 1 | Alzheimer's Research & Therapy

Fig. 1

From: Characterization and clinical use of inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid protein markers in Alzheimer’s disease

Fig. 1

Biomarker distribution in the main cohorts. a Principal component analysis of cerebrospinal fluid levels of standard Alzheimer’s disease (AD) biomarkers and inflammatory proteins in nondemented subjects (ND), patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and patients with AD. The first two dimensions account for approximately 24% and 15% of the variance in the dataset, respectively. CIs were set at 0.7. The standard amyloid and tau markers and their ratios were the main separators of the clinical cohorts. In contrast, inflammatory markers did not achieve comparable discriminatory strength. b, c In direct comparisons, only soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (sTREM2) and C-reactive protein (CRP) differed significantly between the nondemented cohort on the one hand and patients with MCI as well as patients with AD on the other. Box plots represent median and IQR, 5% and 95% percentile whiskers, and all data points outside that range. 40 β-Amyloid 1–40, 42 β-Amyloid 1–42, IP-10 Interferon-γ-induced protein 10, MCP-1 Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, MIF Macrophage migration inhibitory factor, p-tau-181 Tau phosphorylated at position 181, SAA Serum amyloid A protein, sICAM-1 Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1, sIL-1RAcP Soluble inhibition of soluble interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein, sVCAM-1 Soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, t-tau Total tau, VEGF Vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGFR Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor

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