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Table 4 Cox proportional hazards models used to evaluate influence of cognitive performance, magnetic resonance imaging, and cerebrospinal fluid at baseline on survival

From: Disease-related determinants are associated with mortality in dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease

  Model 1 unadjusted Model 2 adjusted for age and sex Model 3: model 2 plus MMSE and duration of complaints
  HR (95% CI) p Value HR (95% CI) p Value HR (95% CI) p Value
Cognitive tests
 MMSEa 1.11 (0.97–1.28) 0.131 1.23 (1.07–1.42) 0.005 1.25 (1.08–1.44) 0.003
 Digit span forwarda 1.07 (0.93–1.23) 0.362 1.10 (0.95–1.26) 0.207 1.03 (0.89–1.20) 0.651
 Digit span backwarda 1.21 (1.05–1.40) 0.008 1.31 (1.13–1.52) 0.000 1.24 (1.06–1.46) 0.009
 VAT naminga 1.15 (1.01–1.31) 0.037 1.14 (1.01–1.30) 0.042 1.11 (0.97–1.27) 0.136
 VAT memorya 1.01 (0.88–1.15) 0.937 1.07 (0.93–1.23) 0.360 1.02 (0.88–1.19) 0.790
 TMT-A 1.21 (1.07–1.37) 0.003 1.29 (1.14–1.47) 0.000 1.23 (1.08–1.41) 0.003
 TMT-B 1.19 (1.05–1.35) 0.006 1.28 (1.13–1.45) 0.000 1.21 (1.06–1.40) 0.005
 RAVLT, immediate recalla 1.23 (1.06–1.43) 0.008 1.19 (1.02–1.38) 0.025 1.11 (0.95–1.30) 0.193
 RAVLT, delayed recalla 0.96 (0.84–1.10) 0.533 0.96 (0.83–1.10) 0.507 0.90 (0.78–1.04) 0.154
 Category fluencya 1.17 (1.02–1.37) 0.045 1.17 (1.01–1.36) 0.041 1.10 (0.94–1.29) 0.243
MRI
 MTA 1.26 (1.10–1.44) 0.001 1.18 (1.02–1.37) 0.030 1.15 (0.98–1.34) 0.081
 PA 1.12 (0.97–1.30) 0.113 1.10 (0.95–1.28) 0.192 1.12 (0.96–1.29) 0.143
 GCA 1.21 (1.05–1.40) 0.008 1.18 (1.01–1.37) 0.037 1.17 (1.00–1.36) 0.044
 WMH 1.16 (1.01–1.33) 0.041 1.07 (0.92–1.25) 0.364 1.05 (0.90–1.22) 0.518
 Lacunes presentb 1.15 (0.77–1.71) 0.505 1.10 (0.73–1.66) 0.634 1.17 (0.76–1.79) 0.485
Microbleed categories       
 Microbleeds, 1–2 0.82 (0.49–1.37) 0.450 0.72 (0.43–1.19) 0.195 0.69 (0.42–1.16) 0.163
 Microbleeds, ≥ 3 1.09 (0.80–1.47) 0.598 1.03 (0.76–1.40) 0.840 1.01 (0.74–1.37) 0.956
 Infarcts presentb 1.11 (0.63–2.00) 0.710 1.15 (0.64–2.05) 0.641 1.11 (0.60–2.05) 0.727
CSF
 Aβ42a 0.98 (0.84–1.14) 0.765 1.02 (0.87–1.18) 0.850 0.99 (0.86–1.16) 0.943
 tau 1.05 (0.91–1.22) 0.504 1.09 (0.94–1.27) 0.275 1.07 (0.92–1.26) 0.369
 p-tau 1.06 (0.92–1.23) 0.426 1.09 (0.94–1.26) 0.242 1.08 (0.93–1.26) 0.316
  1. Abbreviations: MMSE Mini Mental State Examination, VAT Visual Association Test, TMT Trail Making Test, RAVLT Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Task, MRI Magnetic resonance imaging, MTA Medial temporal lobe atrophy, PA Parietal atrophy, GCA Global cortical atrophy, WMH White matter hyperintensities score 3, CSF Cerebrospinal fluid, 42 β-Amyloid 1–42, p-tau Tau phosphorylated at threonine 181
  2. Data are presented as HR (95% CI) using pooled data of 15 imputations per SD increase for continuous variables or for the presence of the dichotomous variable for mortality
  3. a Because a lower score indicates worse performance, these scores were inverted
  4. b Dichotomous variable