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Table 2 Disease-specific characteristics at baseline, according to outcome

From: Disease-related determinants are associated with mortality in dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease

  No. of patients Alive (n = 403) Died (n = 213) p Value
Cognitive tests
 MMSE 616 22 ± 3 22 ± 3 0.480
 Digit span forward 597 11 ± 3 11 ± 3 0.908
 Digit span backward 593 7 ± 3 6 ± 2 0.154
 VAT naming 576 11 ± 1 11 ± 2 0.194
 VAT memory 579 6 ± 4 6 ± 4 0.641
 TMT-A, seconds 581 81 ± 62 92 ± 64 0.046
 TMT-B, seconds 581 299 ± 235 329 ± 215 0.079
 RAVLT, immediate recall 551 23 ± 7 22 ± 8 0.026
 RAVLT, delayed recall 549 2 ± 2 2 ± 2 0.391
 Category fluency 563 13 ± 5 13 ± 6 0.325
MRI
 MTA 484 1.2 ± 0.8 1.6 ± 0.9 0.000
 PA 470 1.2 ± 0.8 1.3 ± 0.8 0.185
 GCA 482 1.0 ± 0.6 1.2 ± 0.7 0.004
 WMH 485 1.0 ± 0.8 1.1 ± 0.9 0.152
 Lacunes present, n (%) 483 20 (6) 16 (9) 0.262
 Microbleeds by category, n (%) 393    0.064
  0 microbleeds   181 (75) 112 (74)  
  1–2 microbleeds   41 (17) 17 (11)  
  ≥ 3 microbleeds   20 (8) 22 (15)  
 Infarcts present, n (%) 482 3 (1) 4 (2) 0.257
CSF
 Aβ42, pg/ml 466 525 ± 172 490 ± 173 0.037
 tau, pg/ml 460 662 ± 340 695 ± 434 0.374
 p-tau, pg/ml 463 83 ± 33 91 ± 45 0.031
  1. Abbreviations: MMSE Mini Mental State Examination (score range 0–30), Digit span forward and backward (range 0–21), VAT Visual Association Test (naming range 0–12, memory range 0–12), TMT Trail Making Test (no range), RAVLT Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Task (immediate recall range 0–60, delayed recall range 0–15), MTA Medial temporal lobe atrophy (range 0–4; average score of left and right sides), PA Parietal atrophy (range 0–3; average score of left and right sides), GCA Global cortical atrophy (range 0–3), WMH White matter hyperintensities (range 0–3), 42 β-Amyloid 1–42, p-tau Tau phosphorylated at threonine 181, MRI Magnetic resonance imaging, CSF Cerebrospinal fluid
  2. Data are presented as mean ± SD unless otherwise specified. Group differences were calculated using Student’s t test for continuous variables. For categorical variables, the chi-square test was used