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Table 1 Demographic, clinical and neuropsychological characteristics of participant groups

From: Behavioural and neuroanatomical correlates of auditory speech analysis in primary progressive aphasias

Characteristic Controls nfvPPA svPPA
General demographic and clinical
 Number (male:female) 9:10 5:5 6:3
 Age (years) 69.4 (4.5) 71.2 (8.9) 63.8 (4.6)*
 Handedness (right:left) 18:1 8:2 8:1
 Education (years) 15.8 (2.4) 14.8 (2.9) 14.9 (2.9)
 MMSE (/30) 29.7 (0.6) 25.6 (4.6) 19.7 (9.1)*
 Symptom duration (years) 4.8 (2.8) 5.3 (2.8)
 PTA best ear (N:Mild:Mod) 10:7:0b 3:5:1a 5:4:0
Background neuropsychological functions
 General intellect: IQ
  WASI verbal IQ 125.9 (7.3) 90.7 (21.4) a 72.3 (18.9)
  WASI performance IQ 124.6 (2.5) 101.2 (7.0) 102.1 (25.6)
 Episodic memory
  RMT words (/50) 49.3 (0.9) 43.5 (6.3) 36.0 (8.0) c,*
  RMT faces (/50) 45.2 (3.1) 39.3 (6.1) 33.3 (6.8) c
  Camden PAL (/24) 20.4 (3.3) 15.8 (6.8) b 2.2 (3.7)*
 Working memory
  WMS-R digit span forward (max) 7.2 (1.2) 5.1 (0.8) b 6.0 (1.9)
  WMS-III spatial span forward (max) 5.5 (0.8)c 4.3 (1.1) c, 5.4 (0.9)
 Executive skills
  WASI Block Design (/71) 45.4 (11.9) 24.2 (18.9) 34.6 (24.2)
  WASI Matrices (/32) 26.4 (4.1) 17.4 (8.6) 19.3 (10.5)
  WMS-R digit span reverse (max) 5.6 (1.2) 3.4 (0.9) b 4.4 (2.1)
  WMS-III spatial span reverse (max) 5.4 (1.0)c 4.4 (1.5)c 4.9 (2.0)
  Letter fluency (F: total) 16.8 (5.0) 5.5 (5.8) d 7.3 (6.5)
  Category fluency (animals: total) 23.6 (5.5) 10.7 (4.3) d 4.9 (5.8)
  Trails A (s) 34.5 (6.8)a 86.9 (50.0) b 48.8 (18.2) a
  Trails B (s) 72.8 (22.1)a 192.0 (96.9) d 123.9 (87.7)a
 Other skills
  Graded difficulty arithmetic (/24) 15.3 (5.5) 5.7 (3.6) c 11.2 (9.8)
  VOSP Object Decision (/20) 19.2 (1.3)a 15.1 (4.6) a 16.8 (3.1) a
Neurolinguistic functions
 Auditory input processing
  PALPA-3 (/36) 35.8 (0.5)c 34.0 (2.6) c 32 (6.5)
 Word retrieval
  GNT (/30) 26.4 (2.5) 17.0 (7.1) a 1.9 (4.6)*
 Speech comprehension
  BPVS (/51) 49.5 (1.3) 43.4 (5.7) 10.1 (14.9)*
  Concrete synonyms (/25) 24.1 (0.8)c 21.3 (4.7)c 14.6 (3.2)*
  Abstract synonyms (/25) 24.3 (0.9)c 21.1 (5.1)c 15.9 (3.5) c,*
  PALPA-55 sentences (/24) 23.8 (0.6)e 22.1 (3.3)c 19.7 (6.8)
 Speech repetition
  Polysyllabic words (/45) 44.4 (0.9)e 33.2 (12.0) d 43.8 (1.6)
Experimental psychoacoustic tasksf
 Temporal regularity (/20) 19.5 (1.0) 18.0 (2.3) 18.6 (2.7)
 Phonemic structure (/20) 18.8 (1.6) 15.3 (3.4) 15.6 (1.6)
 Prosodic predictability (/20) 19.1 (1.8) 14.0 (3.1) 15.0 (4.0)
  1. Values represent mean (standard deviation) scores. Raw scores are presented, with the maximum value possible indicated in parentheses, unless otherwise indicated. Significant differences (p < 0.05) from healthy control values are indicated in bold
  2. *Significantly different (p < 0.05) from nfvPPA group
  3. Significantly different (p < 0.05) from svPPA group
  4. aReduced number of participants: n – 1
  5. bReduced number of participants: n – 2
  6. cReduced number of participants: n – 3
  7. dReduced number of participants: n – 4
  8. eReduced number of participants: n – 5
  9. fSee text for details
  10. BPVS British Picture Vocabulary Scale, Controls healthy control group, GNT Graded Naming Test, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination score, Mild mild hearing loss, Mod moderate hearing loss, N normal hearing, nfvPPA non-fluent variant primary progressive aphasia, PAL paired associates learning, PALPA Psycholinguistic Assessments of Language Processing in Aphasia, PTA pure tone audiometry, RMT Recognition Memory Test, svPPA semantic variant primary progressive aphasia, VOSP Visual Object and Space Perception Battery, WASI Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, WMS Wechsler Memory Scale