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Table 1 Demographics and clinical characteristics

From: One-carbon metabolism, cognitive impairment and CSF measures of Alzheimer pathology: homocysteine and beyond

  All (n = 120) Cognitively normal (CDR 0) (n = 48) Cognitively impaired (CDR 0.5 or 1) (n = 72)
Age, years 70.4 (7.9) 66.0 (7.4) 73.3 (6.9)a
Male sex, n (%) 43 (35.83%) 17 (35.42%) 26 (36.11%)
Education, years 12.4 (2.6) 13.2 (2.3) 11.8 (2.7)a
MMSE score, mean 26.9 (3.1) 28.5 (1.4) 25.9 (3.5)a
APOE ε4 carrier, n (%) 37 (30.83%) 11 (22.92%) 26 (36.11%)a
CSF parameters
 Aβ1–42, pg/ml 847.4 (265.1) 957.4 (194.0) 774.0 (281.5)a
 tau, pg/ml 371.3 (278.6) 221.5 (82.9) 471.1 (316.6)a
 p-tau181, pg/ml 62.0 (35.2) 45.9 (13.3) 72.7 (40.9)a
 p-tau181/Aβ1–42 0.088 (0.082) 0.049 (0.015) 0.114 (0.097)a
 Albumin indexb 6.1 (2.4) 5.3 (1.9) 6.6 (2.5)a
 Choline, μM 2.7 (0.5) 2.6 (0.4) 2.8 (0.6)a
 Cystathionine, nM 35.8 (17.0) 34.4 (13.8) 36.7 (18.9)
 Methionine, μM 3.6 (0.8) 3.3 (0.5) 3.9 (0.9)a
S-adenosylhomocysteine, nM 15.1 (5.8) 13.5 (4.3) 16.1 (6.3)a
S-adenosylmethionine, nM 183.0 (42.0) 188.2 (41.1) 179.4 (42.5)
 Serine, μM 27.1 (4.7) 25.7 (4.1) 28.0 (4.8)a
 Cysteine, μM 1.2 (0.4) 1.2 (0.4) 1.3 (0.4)
 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate, nM 45.1 (12.5) 47.2 (10.9) 43.8 (13.4)
Plasma parameters
 Cystathionine, nM 252.3 (232.4) 267.5 (290.0) 242.1 (185.9)
 Glycine, μM 234.5 (60.6) 235.9 (59.7) 233.6 (61.5)
 Methionine, μM 19.7 (3.6) 19.4 (2.9) 19.9 (4.1)
S-adenosylhomocysteine, nM 20.9 (9.1) 18.3 (6.3) 22.7 (10.2)a
S-adenosylmethionine, nM 71.9 (20.7) 67.6 (17.7) 74.7 (22.2)
 Serine, μM 115.3 (19.9) 111.5 (16.9) 117.9 (21.3)
 Cysteine, μM 158.3 (20.3) 150.7 (18.4) 163.3 (20.1)a
 Homocysteine, μM 5.6 (1.6) 5.3 (1.5) 5.8 (1.7)
  1. Abbreviations: Aβ β-Amyloid, APOE Apolipoprotein E, CDR Clinical Dementia Rating, CSF Cerebrospinal fluid, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination, p-tau181 Tau phosphorylated at threonine 181
  2. Data are given as means with SD within parentheses, unless indicated otherwise
  3. aStatistically different (p ≤ 0.05) from CDR 0 using t tests for continuous variables and binomial proportion tests for categorical variables
  4. bCSF albumin index = [CSF albumin]/[serum albumin] × 100