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Table 2 Recommendations for test development

From: The need for harmonisation and innovation of neuropsychological assessment in neurodegenerative dementias in Europe: consensus document of the Joint Program for Neurodegenerative Diseases Working Group

Psychometric properties

Validity (i.e. does the task measure what it is intended to measure?)

Content validity

Construct validity

Sensitivity and specificity (according to the examination issue)

Predictive validity

Cross-cultural validity (including multiple

language versions for verbal tests)

Clinical relevance

Definitions updating according to most recent neuroscientific evidence

Highly sensitive to early phases of dementia; differential diagnosis among dementias

Change monitoring over time

Minimal effects of literacy


Test/re-test stability; inter-rater reliability

Avoid practice effects; parallel forms; avoid floor- and ceiling effects


Balance between economic and human resources costs.

Availability of normative data across European countries

Optimise administration time; minimise discomfort to the patient