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Table 2 Comparison of demographic variables and the MoCA scale stratified by education level and age

From: Improved predictive ability of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment for diagnosing dementia in a community-based study

  Education Age (years)
  Low Middle High    60–69 70–79  80   
Variables N = 61 N = 118 N = 97 P value a P trend N = 171 N = 91 N = 14 P value a P trend
Age (years ± SD) 67.77 ± 5.63 68.58 ± 6.59 67.23 ± 5.62 0.2572 0.4378 63.96 ± 2.91a 73.27 ± 2.79b 81.57 ± 2.44c < 0.0001*** < 0.0001***
Male (%) 20 (32.79%) 53 (44.92%) 63 (64.95%) 0.0002**   77 (45.03%) 48 (52.75%) 11 (78.57%) 0.0392*  
Education (years ± SD) 5.66 ± 1.35a 10.74 ± 1.53b 15.76 ± 1.21c < 0.0001*** < 0.0001*** 11.52 ± 4.10 11.16 ± 3.96 11.00 ± 3.33 0.7403 0.4450
Total Score 23.39 ± 3.87a 25.28 ± 3.38b 26.62 ± 2.58c < 0.0001*** < 0.0001*** 25.94 ± 3.09a 24.62 ± 3.66b 22.64 ± 4.09b 0.0001** < 0.0001***
Visuospatial 3.38 ± 1.08a 3.93 ± 1.02b 4.40 ± 0.77c < 0.0001*** < 0.0001*** 4.03 ± 1.00 3.95 ± 1.02 3.50 ± 1.34 0.1696 0.1116
Naming 2.59 ± 0.78a 2.74 ± 0.55 2.90 ± 0.37b 0.0032** 0.0007** 2.80 ± 0.52 2.70 ± 0.62 2.64 ± 0.74 0.3096 0.1281
Memory1 3.62 ± 1.22a 4.07 ± 1.04b 4.25 ± 0.89b 0.0022** 0.0008** 4.15 ± 1.02 3.86 ± 1.06 3.50 ± 1.31 0.0269* 0.0072**
Memory2 4.41 ± 0.95a 4.57 ± 0.76 4.80 ± 0.73b 0.0405* 0.0117* 4.64 ± 0.80a 4.64 ± 0.67a 4.10 ± 1.37b 0.1198 0.1813
Attention1 1.80 ± 0.44 1.82 ± 0.45 1.91 ± 0.29 0.1816 0.0855 1.88 ± 0.36a 1.86 ± 0.38a 1.43 ± 0.65b 0.0002** 0.0050*
Attention2 0.92 ± 0.28 0.95 ± 0.22 0.97 ± 0.17 0.3658 0.1602 0.96 ± 0.20a 0.95 ± 0.23 0.86 ± 0.36 0.2435 0.1686
Attention3 2.80 ± 0.48 2.84 ± 0.45 2.89 ± 0.35 0.4668 0.2186 2.87 ± 0.38 2.79 ± 0.51 2.93 ± 0.27 0.2670 0.4875
Language1 0.92 ± 0.78a 1.18 ± 0.74a 1.55 ± 0.56b < 0.0001*** < 0.0001*** 1.35 ± 0.68a 1.15 ± 0.80 0.71 ± 0.47b 0.0022** 0.0008**
Language2 0.84 ± 0.37 0.75 ± 0.43 0.85 ± 0.36 0.1927 0.6787 0.86 ± 0.35a 0.75 ± 0.44 0.50 ± 0.52b 0.0011** 0.0004**
Abstraction 0.79 ± 0.76a 1.26 ± 0.76b 1.68 ± 0.55c < 0.0001*** < 0.0001*** 1.40 ± 0.72a 1.11 ± 0.82b 1.36 ± 0.74 0.0115* 0.0297*
Delayed Recall 2.49 ± 1.76a 2.94 ± 1.67a 3.52 ± 1.63b 0.0008** 0.0002** 3.27 ± 1.63a 2.73 ± 1.81b 2.35 ± 1.74 0.0149* 0.0039**
Orientation 5.89 ± 0.37 5.96 ± 0.20 5.97 ± 0.17 0.0828 0.0472* 5.95 ± 0.21a 5.97 ± 0.18a 5.71 ± 0.61b 0.0010* 0.0560
  1. MoCA Montreal Cognitive Assessment, SD standard deviation
  2. *: P < 0.05 ; **: P < 0.01 ; ***: P < 0.0001
  3. a. Tested by ANOVA with Scheffe’s test and χ2 test